Module 5: ethics: why is ethics critical to research and evaluation, what are some ethical concerns or considerations in research, past ethical violations, nazi nuremberg trials, 13 trials were conducted from 1945-1949 and the defendants were. Nuremberg code: considered to be the most important document in the history, developed out of doctors" trials of the nuremberg trials. Includes 10 research principles emphasizing and protections of the participant: some principles include, consent must be voluntary. Experiment must be developed to minimize harm: risk should never outweigh humanitarian benefit, experiments should only be conducted by qualified people, participants can withdraw participation at any time, tuskegee syphilis trials. In 1932 a government entity (public health service) was working with the tuskegee institute in alabama: began a study to record the natural history of syphilis in hopes of justifying treatment programs for the black community.