D103 - Lecture 15 - Signaling I.docx

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Biological Sciences
Grant Mac Gregor

A. Clicker Question a. Which would be a Poor signaling molecule? i. Collagen b. Good signaling molecule i. Nitric oxide 1. Dialation of blood vessels ii. Phospholipids 1. Lipid with a phosphate on it 2. Amphipathic 3. Overs around the lipid bilayer b. Don't need a plasma membrane to enter a cell? i. Estrogen 1. Hydrophobic but also hydrophillic A. Plasma Membrane a. Selective permeability b. Insulates cell from extracellular membrane B. Yeast C. G-protein coupled receptor a. GPCR b. 3 subunits i. Alpha ii. Beta iii. Gamma b. Heterotrimeric B. GPCR a. Important role in yeast signaling b. Humans in olfactory receptors B. Achondroplasia a. Short-stature b. Single base change that affects a single amino acid in a receptor c. Developmental problem B. Retinoblastoma a. Homeostatic problem b. Tumor in the retina B. Cell signaling - Long Distances a. Glucose i. Broad response ii. Many cells respond b. Hormones c. Neurotransmitters i. Long distance signaling ii. Long axon iii. NT is released over a short distance b. Neurohormones i. Long distance B. Signaling- Short distances a. Connectones i. Made of connexins ii. Gap junctions iii. Direct cytoplasmic between cells b. Contact-dependent signaling i. Interaction between membrane molecules on the cells b. Autocrine signals i. Acts on the same cells that have secreted it ii. Negative feedback b. Paracrine Signals i. Acts on adjacent cell
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