Richard k: lived a double life; was a murderer and a husband with children, template of what happens to kids when they experience trauma at a young age/get beat constantly by parents/bad brain development. When family dysfunctionality happens, it affects brain development. Psychosocial stages of development: birth to 1 year: trust vs. mistrust, 2-4 years: autonomy vs. shame and doubt, 4-5 years: initiative vs. guilt, 5-12 years: industry vs. inferiority (cliques of kids in schools, adolescence-puberty, adulthood. Disruptions to healthy development: abuse: physical, mental, emotional, rape/molestation, violence, malnutrition/starvation, neighborhood effects (erin brokovich effects, pregnancy. Tagging began in new york in the 1970s; Modern tagging dates back to tanks in world war 1 or 2 (kilroy was here) Tagging spread to the west coast in 1988: california has the most tagging in the united states, taggers tag from 2-6am most taggers want recognition and fame of getting known.