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Sociology
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SOCIOL 1
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Black
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Spring

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Sociology 1 Complete lecture notes Lecture notes 03.29.2011 Sociology 1 In that scene from pulp fiction, Jules and Vincent were talkinga bout the differences in hamburger conventions between US and Europe  Europeans use mayo on fries, whereas we use ketchup o If Vincent were to use his sociological imagination, he would have questioned why we in America use ketchup and not mayo. Instead, he just focused on the strangeness of them using mayo. But in fact any condiment could be viewed as normal in the right cultural setting. Examining the connection between the society at large. How are we connected to society at large?  We go to school at ucla  Citizenship/nationality  Racial and ethnic identity  Names can connect you to a family. Your last name is often the same as other peoples  Speaking a specific language In general, what we‟re giving examples of is social institituions. Cocial institutions socialize the people within them. Heres a few more. The legal system, the labor market, the educational system, the military is known as a total institution. Occupies all time, norms enforced strictly. The family is another social institution. More wisdom from c wright mills – neither the life of an individual nor the history of the society can be understood without understanding both. This is really the connection between micro and macro level phenomenon. We have to look at both individual phenomena and broader ones Micro sociology – understands local interactions. Often we do this by going to the site we‟re interested, talking to the people who participate there. Sometimes individual experiences are best learned about through in depth interviews. The individual level Macro sociology – basically looks at social dynamics across whole societies or large parts of them. These involve the analysis of very large data sets, statistical data, or historical data. Given a particular topic in sociology, you could approach it with either micro or macro If you were interested in individual peoples‟ motivations to go to collehe, you could survey various individual college students. Talking to individuals, micro sociology If you were interested in broad trends in the college process, i.e. historical changes in percent of gender among graduates, or change in enrollment by race, that yould be macro sociology. Dependin on your specific focus, you would either go in a micro direction or a macro direction. According to c wright mills, you need to look at both levels. You also need to develop the facility to be able to go back and forth between the two perspectives. Lecture slides will be posted on class website 24 hours after lecture. Procedural stuff on class website. Log in to class website introductory sociology. Syllabus is on class website. Textbooks – get the second edition of You may ask yourself. And the other one. Both on sale at book store and on reserve at powell Reading should be done prior to lecture. If it doesn’t have an author next to it, its on the class website under that given week Discussion sections require in depth work with reading, so bring readings to discussion. If you‟re new to library research, talk to the professor or the TA about doing research. Leacture notes 03.31.2011 Sociology 1 Socialization – the process whereby people learn and adopt the values and behavioral standards of their society Most important aspects of social life are never taught explicitly Importance of socialization becomes apparent in its absence. Feral children – isolated rom human contact during the formative years Jeanie – a special case of a feral child. Locked in a room and tied to a chair for her 13 years of life. When scientists saw her, she couldn‟t talk and had many other strange inhuman qualities. In studying her sleep brian waves, they found abnormalities. Jeanie shows us in an extreme form what happens in the absence of socialization Another case: Dani – discovered in 2005 at age 7. When they went into the house where she was kept, they found human and animal urine and feces. Cockroaches everywhere, garbage. In the absence of socialization, the child was unresponsive. She didn‟t respond to looking at her, talking or touching her. Early relationships help wire the brain, helping you learn trust, language, communication. After being placed in foster care, she‟s made a lot of progress Importance of nurturance and even contact at the bare minimum shown many times in studies. In an experiment, monkeys prefer a cloth doll over a food dispensing metal doll. The conclusion is that the monkeys needed nurturance as much as food. For mammals, nurturance is essential for life. Children need comfort and socialization to become recognizably human. Why are we discussing feral children? To argue that things that we consider a part of human nature are actually the outcome of socialization processes. Theyre the outcome of prolonged interactions with other people on a regularbasis. However there are limits to socialization. It doesn‟t explain 100% of a persons personality. Certain biological factors also affect a persons personality development. The questions is not nature or nurture, but rather both to a certain extent. Sociologists do focus on social and environmental factors though. What does this process look like? We have to first develop a sense of self, then we develop a sense of “other” Cooley – the looking glass self – one of the earliest theories of self concept development. 1920s. he said we can imagine how we look to other people. We assume the point of view of others and imagine how those others see us. Gauging other people‟s reactions is important to us forming our self concept. According to cooley, its important to understand that your view of yourself is based on how other people see you. Mead‟s theory – 1930s- a developmental model. (what is a developmental model – graduating through a hierarchy of stages).  I concept – view of oneself as an agent, a subject  Me concept – view of oneself as an object, being perceived by other people  Other concept – literally other people Mead says children learn how to recognize others through early vvarieties of play, such as peekaboo. A child who covers their eyes and says you cant see me doesn‟t understand the concept of I me other. Later kids move on to games involving certain clearly defined roles, such as cops and robbers. Then the roles get more strictly difined, and involve understand how other people are also fulfilling their roles. Soccer for example requires knowing where team mates are going to run. After spefici others, you learn the Generalized Other. This allows you to navigate situations you‟ve never been in before its your sense of the totality of society and its expectations. The generalized other is what keeps you from singing outloud on the bus. Its how you know to bring a lap top to class without being told. Socialization is accomplished through agents of socialization – social institutions such as school, peer groups, the media. There are some total institutions such as the military. Depending on your life situation, the relative importance of these factors will vary. As a young child, most of your socialization comes from family. Then as a child your friends and school become more important. The agents of socialization most important to your life will shift as you grow up. The social construction of reality Social construction - people give meaning or value to ideas or objects through social interactions. - Its an ongoing process that is embedded in our everyday interactions. If you see a woman slap a man in the street, you can interpret the situation in various ways. Based on the other subtle ques that you see, you will create a different narrative. If you think the man is getting beeat up, you might intervene. Or it might just be a joke. You have to infer this based on other little things you pick up on. How we interpret such a thing has important consequences. People act in accordance with shared meanings, orientations, and assumptions. Reality is constituted through or interactions with other people. Symbolic interactionism – reality gets constituted and maintained through our interactions with other people. The sociologist Goffman made a dramaturgy mtaphor. He argues that life is like a dramatic performance. Everyone has different roles. In a lecture hall, you understand that you‟re supposed to sit quietly, the professor understands shes supposed to lecture, etc. Goffman had the idea of front stage and back stage. This can be literal or figurative. Back stage means private, front stage means public. The fragile nature of reality gets revealed when people break assumptions that we take for granted and that we rely upon for smooth everyday interactions. Harold Garfinkel created breaching experiments. He had people purposefully violate rules or expectations of other people. You bvehave in an abnormal atypical way, to see how people would react. He is working from a perspective of ethnomethodology. Garfinkel is arguing that there are certain unwritten rules best discovered by breaking them. An example of his experiments: he had his students go home for break and act like guests in their own home. Instead of acting at home, they would call their parents by their last names, ask where the bathroom is, don‟t do any chores. Parents got very upset and confused. Another: elevator behavior. Normal behavior is stepping in, facing forward, not talking orr getting close to the other people. If you don‟t do this, it really freaks people out. Humor such as Sacha Baron Cohen rely on breaching social norms, to see how people would respond. How do people respond when you walk too closely to them?  People consistently stopped, got out of the way. When you notice reality getting disrupted, you try to make up a narrative to explain it, such as thinking the person is in a big hurry. Then you try to engage them in conversation, asking why, or possibly getting upset or cursing  Because our reality os socially constructed, an unexpected change can be upsetting or incomprehensible  We all have a strong personal stake in maintaining shared meanings., so that our society can continue to function smoothly Go to discussion next weke, read conley ch 1 and 4. Bring both books to discussion. Proff black office hours (Haines A58 D. don‟t knock just go right in) Tuesday and Thursday, also available by appointment. For the paper – the content currently on the website is the correct and current content. Paper is due Tuesday may 17. Start of week 8. Its due sooner and a little shorter. 5-7 pages. What exactly do you have to do to write this paper. Over the weekend look through the syllabus and start thinking of a topic. You can write on any topic in sociology. By week 2 you want to have selected your topic. If your topic isn‟t on the syllabus, check in with professor black By week 3-4, start conducting research in the library, start gathering articles. By week 4-5, do reading, take notes, present a synthetic argument. Give yourself enough time to read the articles and consider them in relationship to one another Week 5 – start an outline of your main arguments. Good time to meet with Proff in office hours Start thinking about your topic before TA section. lecture noes 04.05.2011 Sociology What is the role of the third person in a group? A. Mediator – helps solve conflict B. Tertius Gaudens – the third that rejoices. Benefits from the rif between the first two members C. Divide and conquer – rather than jus benefiting, this person actually ries o drive a rift between the first two members The basis of SImmel‟s theory – as you add more people geometrically, the number of possible relationships increases exponentially. Note, not all of these relationships have to actually exist, they are just possible. Social network – a collected group of actors – people or corporations or any group – connected by lines. The lines represent any sort of relationship – friendship, family, sexual, monetary. The ties between the nodes form the structure of the social network. You can think of it as a collection of dyads, tied together. Why are network ties so important? Mark Granovetter – he uses network analysis to study how people get jobs. He found that people find jobs through personal connections, information flows through their social networks. Through these networks they get info on job openings, etc. Strong ties – ties that are deeply imbedded. They are embedded through indirect ties. Weak tie – ties that are not deeply embedded. Few indirect paths between the two. Granovetter found that surprisingly, people found more jobs through weak ties. It‟s the people you know casually are the ones that most often help you get your job This is known as the strength of weak ties. These casual connections are very important, because someone whos not very close to you might have access to novel information which you previously lacked. Weak ties represent opportuneities. Weak ties can form bridges between distant social groups. Weak ties enable relationships between otherwise separate clusters. 6 degrees of separation – phenomenon that any two people in the world can be connected through a chain of 6 people. Duncan watts‟ research is an update of the milgram study, in some important ways. The mjiglram study relied on ppostal mail for people to work through their six steps, but Duncan did it vial email, this allows him to have a broader international audience The number 6 is only the number of links for the letters that made it. About half of the letters made it, so about half of people are connected by 6. In the original, Super-conectors, people with lots of friends, was important in the milgram study. In the updated Watts research, super-connectors less impt and information more egalitarian Network analysis – important implications for sociology and practical applications. His research form the end of the clip – what makes different songs or music popular – is it intrinsic quality or is it just the influence of other peoples‟ opinions. Another important application of network analysis – C Wright Mills talks about a group called the Power Elite – this is also known as a corporate interlock. When theres two people or more sitting together on mulitiple corporate boards. The research on corporate interlocks, or interlocking directorates, finds that industries like banks and insurance companies have the highest concentration of people sitting on multiple boards together. 11 of the 15 larges compaaannnies have this. Why is this problematic – it could hurt competition, create conflicts of interest. You have a very small group of rich white men making decisions for thousands of companies, and those companies‟ decisions are affecting consumers here and abroad, all across the world. The issue of conflict of interest comes up in a number of ways. This also poses a challenge to the objectivity of scientific research. Before the pharma companies can sell a drug they need to show research on thesafety and side effects of the drug. Thus they need funding for research. Whos funding the research influences the nature of the research. Companies will be reluctant to fund research that says horrible things about their drugs. Thus corporate interlock can affect our health and other such fundamentals. Lecture Notes 04.07.2011 Sociology 1 Deviance and social control Distribution of Income and the United States in 2011 – data from the vanity fair article 1% of the population controls 25% of income and 40% of wealth. This massive inequality has been explained by some economists as Marginal Productivity theory. This is the theory that the people who are rewarded most handsomely are rewarded so because theyre making the most important contributions and they‟re working the hardest. This theory is utterly invalid. Why do we hav e such income inewuality? Because the people at the top, the people with the power to change things, instead choose to perpetuate them. This inequality underlines the inefficiency in our economy. If our most talented and bright young people are attracted primarily to the financial sector, a socially useless sector, we lose talent in other more important less well paid sectors like science and research and development of new technologies. This is a literal application of the Mathew effect, the rich getting richer and the poor poorer Our real topic – deviance and social control Last time we talked aobut social groups. Groups function smoothly partly because of apparatus of social control. Social Deviance – any transgression of socially established norms  Informal deviance – minor transgressions of norms  Formal Deviance – violation of written or otherwise codified aws. Sometimes called crime Deviance is not always u8nderstood as negative. Its just something that differs from the norm, We‟ll review today some major theories of deviance Durkheim‟s functionalist approach – functionalism analyses the society by looking at the roles and functions of different institutions. He asks questions like, what is the function of education. They assume everything exists because it serves a function, a social purpose. A functionalist view of state government assumes governments emerge because people need someone to make and enforce the laws, fund public schools, etc. DFunctionalism has been criticized for protecting the status quo. If you assume the only things that exist are things we need to exist, you will perpetuate established institutions. An important view of durkheims view on deviance – he though about social cohesion, the way people form bonds, relate to each other, and get along on a day to day basis. He viewed Deviance as something that occurs when individuals violate the collective conscience. What are the potential functions of deviance – in some ways, deviance allows us to innovate. When people break norms, it allows us to redefine our view of what is proper, leading ttto new perceptions or formsss ooofff behavior… Deviance is functionat in the durkheimian approach because it alolows people to unite against a common perceived enemy. People can come togwther and revile and oppose something that violates social norms. It promotes moral unity. This brings us to one of the paradoxes of sociology: it is the deviants among us who hold society together. Durkheim applied his ideas of deviance to the act of suicide. When we think of suicide, we view it as a very personal decision. Reasons could be a mental or chemical imbalance, a massive personal trauma. Durkheim gives a sociological analysis by arguing that suicide is a social fact because its an act of social deviance and a product of social forces. A normative theory of suicide, which relies on two concepts. Social integration, the degree to which you are tied to your community and social groups, and social regulations, the degree to which tour daily activities are structured by your social groups, and its expectations, He says, to be at low risk for suicide and other forms of deviance you should be in the middle on the axes of both social regulation and social integration. Suicide is social because if yu stray from the center in any direction, you become at greater risk for any form of deviance  Egoistic suicide – feeling disconnected from your community, lonely. Low social integration  Altruistic suicide – a cult suicide for example you‟re so identified with your group, and lack identity outside the group. High social integration.  Anomic- your life lacks structure, no predictability, no one expects you to do anything – low social regulation  Fatalistic – a prisoner, who feels like activities are overstructured, no personal freedom or variety, nothing to look forward to. High social regulation . We‟ll talk as well about two symbolic interactionist theories of social deviance. Symbolic individualists zoom in on the individual, and look at how individual actions in a highly localized context matter. They will ask, how do peoples everyday assumptions, the local environment, and interactions, create circumstances that make deviance more or less likely Broken windows theory – behavior is influenced by how you see your surroundings. The way you act is different in different situations. Sociologists left two cars, one in Palo Alto and one in the South Bronx. The one in palo alto was un touched, while the one in the Bronx was immediately scrapped and vandalized. Then they went back to the one in palo alto and messed it up a little themselves. They dented it, and graffitied a little. Then people started coming by that car, int hat safe affluent neighborhood, and fucking up the car more themselves. If it looks like its ok to vandalize it, people who might otherwise not vandalize, would try. People see little ques and take their inspiration from it. Labeling theory _ you start internalizing how other people see you. They accept the label as true, and it becomes the basis for identity. People behave the way they think someone with their label should behave. This may be related to the theory of the looking glass self. We look at others for information about who we are. Becker is a proponent of this idea. he says that people don‟t ever actually commit crimes in the sense, they only commit acts that get labeled as crimes. Acts must be labeled as deviant to be recognized as such. Labeling also creates the concept of a Deviant, the person who commits deviant acts. Stanford prison experiment, Philip Zimbardo, 1971 How can we apply labeling theory to this situation? Given their specific labels, they could start living up to those labels and adapting behaviors they might not otherwise have enacted. Both prisoners and guards internalized their assigned roles very quickly and thoroughly. Even though they seemingly knew it was an experiment, through interactions they re-orriented their sense of reality. Despite it being a pretend prison, it had very serious psychological roles. Actual prison systems have varied historically in terms f how the enact punishment on prisoners Foucault onPunishment – discipline and punish, a book in which he describes how criminal justice has varied historically. He writes about the historical case of a certain servant who tried to kill Louis 16 at Versailles. When they found out, he was punished brutally. His body was obliterated, and this was characteristic of 18 century state sanctions, punishing peoples bodies. Modern punishment is different. Instead of punishing bodies, we attempt to reform souls. Examples of this would be giving reduced sentences to prisoners who behave well, or programs within prisons that educate prisoners. Notable exceptions to this in the modern penal system include the tortue of political detainees, or the death penalty. Basically we have a situation where control in modern prisoners is about controlling prisoners time and regulating their bhevaior. Bentham‟s Panopticon revolutionized design in current prison system. It‟s a prison that‟s made of two circles. Theres an inner ring with a guard tower, and the outer ring contains the cells. This ensures that the guards can always see the prisoners, but the prisoners cant tell when theyre being watched. They know theres always a possibility of being watched. In theory, prisoners discipline themselves just in case they‟re being observed. Foulcault uses the panopticon as a metaphor for social control at large. He says social control functions because people self regulate, always fearful of being watched. We follow regimens and discipline ourselves because we are potentially under surveillance at all times. This ranges to all things from going to the dentist or getting to class on time. 4-12-2011 Lecture 5 Gender Gender & Sex Gender refers to one's legal and cultural status as a woman or a man for most people, gender corresponds to your sex at birth Sex refers to biological differences that distinguish males and females external genitals also social BOTH gender & sex are socially constructed The Social Construction of Gender What is assumed to be "natural" is arguably socially constructed Gender is socially constructed, with binary gender categories in the contemporary West Embodied Differences and Inequalities Body may differ naturally, but those differences are exaggerated socially The meanings of those differences are social and cultural gender differences lead to gender inequalities West & Zimmerman's "Doing Gender" Gender is not something you "have", but rather something you DO Gender is an ongoing accomplishment embedded in everyday interaction Doing gender reinforces gender dichotomy (either/or) Doing gender is not optional Doing gender exaggerates and naturalizes differences between men & women How did you do gender today? clothing hairstyle tone of voice interacting with others as if the same or a different gender using gender segregated public restrooms posture muscle tone athletic performance "like a girl" stance, gait, walk how you sit how you allow your body to occupy space eye contact presence/absence/style of facial hair Intersex General term for a variety of conditions in which anatomy does not fit with typical description of male or female Though congenital, intersex anatomy is not always apparent at birth overall frequency: between 1/4000 and 1/100 ex. infertile hard to put data on it not everyone who is knows hard to clearly define Intersex = Social Construction Nature gives us spectrums of sexual anatomy Components of sexual anatomy vary in size, shape, and morphology Humans take the spectrums given by nature and organize them into categories Humans use reductionist sex categories to simplify social interactions, express what we know and feel, and maintain order Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia cause of intersex Frequency: 1 in 5,000 Body cannot produce cortisol so baby will lose a lot of salt "salt wasting crisis" XX female with androgen levels similar to those of normal males ambiguous external genitalia female internal genitalia will be able to reproduce Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome may be complete or partial defective androgen receptor androgen (male hormones) CAIS leads to feminized external genitals PAIS leads to ambiguous genitals Genetically XY ; undescended testes ; no uterus breast development at puberty most don't know until they don't menstruate 5-Alpha Reductase a deficiency in an enzyme that enables dev of male external genitalia and secondary sex characteristics genetic XY male phenotypically female at birth will masculinize at puberty Patient-Centered Care for Intersex Patients Address problems that threaten health reduce shame delay elective surgery assign a gender respect parents' concerns sex categories have changed historically before enlightenment, we did not have 2 different sexes we had men and women but understanding was we have same anatomy just different versions The One-Sex Model 1586: on the left, a structure that looks like a penis. on the right, the classical female form from which this structure is excerpted women is inverted A closer look at a portion of this same 1586 image (top) depicts a uterus that looks much more like a penis than our modern representations. such as the bottom drawing from 1998 Encyclopedia of Family Health the way scientists & doctors changed transition to two sex model was supported by wax models called Venuses sexualized women One Sex Model Pre-Enlightenment male and female anatomies relatively undifferentiated different versions of the same reproductive organs Two Sex Model Post Hierarchical Dichotomous Women's bodies = deviant and sexualized Gender Socialization Think back to your childhood. Do you remember an aspect of your socialization that taught you about how to be a girl or a boy? pink vs. blue books hair cuts chores Work on gender socialization of children has emphasized top-down socialization This framework ignores the powerful role children play as active agents in... The socialization of other children The creation of their own social worlds Gender Play Barrie Thorne's study of how grade school children construct gender Focuses on group life, not just the unfolding of individuals as boys or girls Children construct gender differently depending on the special social context The salience of gender varies In some situations, gender matters very little But in other situations, it matters a lot! 6th grader may play with 2nd grader at home but not at school girl games boy games rituals boys messing up girls games kids police gender boundaries for one another Gender Inequalities in Education Gender inequality is rampant in schools Boys & girls are treated differently by teachers, and there are diff expectations for their behavior & performance boys got more instructional time & got away with interrupting, etc. At college level 48.2% of math B.A.s from top U.S. universities in 2000 were women, but only 8.3% of math faculty were women women are over rep in traditionally feminine fields arts & humanities pay less women are under rep in elite colleges At work Women still face many challenges unequal pay, sexual harassment, sexism, glass ceiling, "feminization", etc Even among adults with strongest attachment to labor force, only 9.6% of women earn more than $50,000 annually, compared with 44.5% of men In 2004, median income of FTYR (full time year round) workers was $40,789 for males and $31,223 for females women make 23 cents on a dollar less than men "Glass Ceilings" prevent women from rising to the top of prestigious, male- dominated occupations "Glass Escalators" facilitate the promotion of men to leadership positions in feminized occupations Opting Out refers to a perceived trend among mostly middle class women of leaving the workforce to be full time wives and mothers, in large part cuz of frustrations with the many obstacles they face on the job and the sense that they can find fulfillment in the home 4-14-2011 Lecture 6 Sexuality Sexuality refers to desire, sexual preference, sexual identity, and behavior Women's Bodies are Sexualized in the Media Jean Kilbourne's Kiling Us Softly series surveys the contemporary advertising landscape to critically examine (media library in Powell) How What To What effect do corporations and their advertisers use images of girls & women to sell their products ads sell more than products women's body are things turned into things, objects creates widespread violence amongst women justification person dehumanized Kilbourne's Primary Arguments Media messages are not natural, inevitable or innocent Advertisers create the markets they pitch to Standards of femininity expressed in advertising are deliberate creations that conform to identifiable patterns Consequences of Sexualization of Women in Media Advertising takes agency away from women Creates problems beyond advertising Advertising reflects, exacerbates, and exploits deep-seated anxieties about gender Advertising can undermine the way people (especially girls and women)feel about themselves Advertising normalizes violence done to women by men happens to males too sexually available very uniform A Standardized Look (Men) Young (30-) Slim yet Muscular Poses suggest either physical dominance or sexual availability Clean shaven or "designer stubble" Uniformity of facial features: defined jaw line, full lips, intense eyes, clear skin A generic look tells us who and what is sexy The Charmed Circle look at Rubin article we arrange our sexual practices in a hierarchy Heteronormativity & Heterosexism Heteronormativity assumptions that there are exactly 2 complementary genders (man & woman) with natural and complementary roles in life; and that heterosexuality is the normal, default, & preferable sexual orientation problem cuz stigmatizes those who do not conform makes it difficult for them to express themselves Heterosexism accepted & acceptable a system of prejudice & discrimination against sexual activities & relationships that are not heterosexual beliefs that lgbtq are 2nd class citizens discrimination in marriage The Social Construction of "The Homosexual" Note the distinction between sexual practices & sexual identities Prior to 1850, there was no such thing as a "homosexual" there were practices though. not identities Throughout history, there are records of homosexual practices, but homosexual identity is relatively recent Foucault's History of Sexuality Bodies are influenced by culture 19th century Europe: populations growing, nation-states must regulate & manage them "Bio-power"=social policies & institutions designed to regulate populations aka bio politics Discourse arise about how to study & regulate sexuality Characterization of homosexual as a deviant kind of personhood was reified by practices like the APA labeling homosexuality as a mental disorder until 1973 Point was to identify and control sexual deviance and sexual deviants Transgender an umbrella term for individuals who deviate from gender norms. can include transvestites, cross-dressers, transsexuals, drag queens, drag kings Transsexual a term used for an individual who has or will have "sex reassignment" surgery or will take hormone treatments in order to live full time as a gender different than the one they were assigned at birth Labeling: What's at Stake? Transsexual a more restrictive term, typically referring to medical treatment Developed & applied by therapists & medical doctors Transgender A less restrictive term, referring to a wide spectrum of gender ambiguity Often connotes social movement & political aspects of fluid gender expression MTFs & FTMs MTF: Male-to-female or "transwoman" can be heterosexual transowoman or lesbian transwoman cisgender: born into a category you were assigned at birth. you like it so you stuck to it ex. me FTM: Female-to-male or "transman" can be heterosexual transman or gay transman Official Regulations for Gender Transitions Gender transitions are typically guided by documents called "Standards of Care for Gender Identity Disorders" (SoC) The most widespread SoC in this field is published by the World Professional Association for Transgender Health (WPATH) Numerous medical boards around the world rely on the WPATH SoC to treat transsexualism doesn't pose a threat to society expensive, emotionally difficult Therapy: required for at least three months, but official length is at the discretion of the therapist Hormones: life-long use of testosterone or estrogen Real Life Experience where you actually live at your target gender recommended for a year Access to surgical procedures some people do others don't Types of Surgery MTF Electrolysis of the face, hands, chest, back Breast implants Vaginoplasty Tracheal Shave FTM Matectomy Hysterectomy Metoidioplasty or Phalloplasty Grand Total MTF: $30,000-60,000 FTM: $30,000-100,000 How do transgender individuals expose gender as socially constructed? Transgender bodies do not conform common assumptions about gender Everyone must "do gender" but the process of learning to do gender is more visible for transsexuals Transsexuals are held more accountable for this learning process cuz they are thought not to have a "natural" claim to their gender Ben Barres neurobiologist at Stanford transman who transitioned in 1997 his personal experiences reveal gender inequality in the sciences still living as a female while going thru undergrad at mit "Just One of the Guys?" Kristen Schilt conducted in-depth interviews with 29 FTMs in SoCal researched the process of making a gender transition at work Schilt's Findings FTM transitions expose gender inequalities in the workplace many FTMs enjoyed more authority and respect post-transtion, even if they stayed at the same job everyone knows they used to be female but they were treated differently. better. Male privilege was not distributed evenly Tall, heterosexual, white FTMs received more benefits than FTMs who were short, gay, or people of color Sociology 1 Lecture Notes 04.19.2011 Mitdterm exam coming up on Thursday week 5. April 28 th A good way to start preparing for it is to start reviewing lecture notes, and the points where the lecture overlaps with the reading. Last week we discussed the concept of social location. Today‟s lecture will focus on class and stratification We can start with asking for a definition of stratification: acc Conley, Systematic inequalities between groups of peoplethat arise as intended or unintended consequences of social processes and relationships. Systems of stratifications tend to be reproduced by beliefs that are widely shared by many members of the society. In a stratified society people at the top have much greater access to resources than do people at the bottom. In US the top 1% of the population is controlling a disproportionate amount of the wealth If we observe that society is unequal, this begs the question, unequal by what measure? Assuming we want equality, what kind of equality do we want and what do we mean by equality. Conley discusses several standards 1. Ontological equality – the idea that everyone is created equal in the eyes of god. This is often used to justify and support material inequalities. “It doesn‟t matter if ur rich or poor cause god sees everyone as the same”. 2. Equality of Opportunity – the idea tat the same rules apply to everyone and everyone will be judged by the same standard. Inequality is acceptable if we all have the same opportunities for advancement. For example, we accept that in Monopoly, someone is going to end up with more, but its ok because everyone had the same chances to succeed. Some people have better skill/luck, and this justifies inequalities. 3. Equality of condition – Everyone should have an equal starting point. Since people typically don‟t have the same playing field to start with, we need programs to counter these preexisting inequalities. An example of sucha policy is Affirmitive Action 4. Equality of Outcome – everyone should end up the same. Regardless of opportunities, skills, different starting points, everyone should end up equal. “From each according to his ability, to each according to his needs” Karl Marx. If you have a system organized to ensure equality of outcome, there‟s no incentive to strive or work hard. This is called the free rider problem. These are our different standards of equality. SO when inequality does characterize a society, it too can take a variety of forms. We can have different bases for stratification 1. The estate system – a political basis. Resources are unequally distributed based on things like laws based on proprety rights and power being divided unequally. Midieval Europe 2. Caste system – A religious basis. Like the estate but its religious in nature a. In these two, there is no social mobility. You can‟t move from one stratum to another 3. Class system – (usually) an economic basis. Sociologists disagree about what class means. Unlike the estate and caste system, this is not a clear cut system. There are rarely sharp lines between classes. Controversies in sociologists arise a. What the categories are b. Where to draw the lines c. Who is in what category d. Sociologists disagree about the extent to which class is economic in base. Under a class system, social mobility is at least theoretically possible Karl Marx – thinks about class in economic terms. His class categories are relational. People have different relationships to the means of production, and that‟s how class arises. Some people own the means of production, such as land and factories, and some people sell their labor. Acc Marx, you share economic interests with people in your class. You amy not realize it but you do. Your economic interests actually stand in opposition to people in other classes. This ties in with conflict theory. For Marx there are two classes, the proletariat (worker) and the bourgeoisie (capitalists). For Marx, class is not a dollar amount, its ab out a roll in an economic system. There could be a rich proletariat or a poor capitalist. If you‟;re rich, if you got rich by earning high wages, you‟re still proletariat. Marx‟s model may seem inadequate for addressing the complexities of modern capitalism. Erik Olin: Some people can occupy positions in between these class locations. For example, a middle manager sells his labor, doesn‟t own means of production, earns a wage. In this respect, he is a proletariat. However, he also dominates his workers, and he extracts value from the work of his underlings. In this respect, he‟s bourgeoisie. SO he falls in between. Or a Mechanic who owns his own shop but has no employees. He owns the means of production but doesn‟t extract the value from any laborers. People can fall in between class locations. Have multiple class locations, if you have two jobs Have a mediated class position. The class position of each family member affect one another. Temporally distinct class locations. You might be being groomed to be an upper level manager, but they have you work the floor for a few years. Other Sociologists like Pierre Bourdieu emphasize aesthetic taste, culture, and preferences, in making up class. These preferences are influenced by people‟s differing economic means. People express their class position by expressing their own distinct tastes. Your preferences start to feel like second nature, they are acquired at an early age. You gain a preference for certain sports, music, cultural forms. You constantly display these preferences, and this helps you show your distinct class position. Bourdieu argues that the tastes that you learn from your family correlate to income. Status A stratification based on social prestige. What society as a whole thinks about a given lifestyle or the community to which a given person belongs. How prestigious is it? People with the same status can have different incomes. However, they all participate in a lifestyle, and they all get similar amounts of prestige. Status tends to be very finely gradated, many many layers of stratification.Theres lot‟s of social mobility in the status hierarchy system. Sociologists have looked at occupational prestige and occupational status,. The model has tended to focus on gathering public perceptions of the prestige of certain careers. The Duncan Scale, ranging from 0 – 96, surveys people and asks how prestige they think certain occupations are. A finding: the prestige of a job has more to do with the education and credentials required to do it, rather than income. How is America stratified today? SES, socio-economic states, refers to position in a stratified social order as determined by any numbers of measures, including income, wealth, occupation, or education. Fuzzy categories with contested boundaries. What Social class are you? And how do you know? Conspicuous consumption – wealthy people can afford unusual and extravagant modes of consumption Thorstein Vebeln – extravagant spending on goods and services as a demonstration of wealth and income, display of wealth to attain or maintain social status. Spending money just to show others that wou have it. Robert Frank studies excessive consumption, which he terms “luxury fever”. Why is this of concern to us? Is luxury spending even a problem? Yes. Robert Frank points out that even though these purposes give you a nice rush, but they don‟t increase your utility over time. He draws on psychological research, showin g that as society becomes more and more wealthy, society‟s level of subjective happiness remains the same. Even as you‟re getting more of the stuff you want, you don‟t feel better. How can it be that if you can get the goods you want, you don’t feel subjectively better? Frank argues that people adjust to higher standards of living quickly. This raises the question, if the pursuit if material wealth beyond a certain point does not lead to greater happiness, why do people continue to seek more and better things. Studies show that people choose the option that is framed as safe and sure. IF you frame things in terms of loss, people become very loss-averse. We noted that increases in standards of living don‟t make people happy. However, people are very loss averse, and they hate the idea of moving downward. You always dread a decline in your standard of living. Competition and Seratonin Because people fear a decline inn their standard of living, this leads to very competitive modes of spending. Competitive spending can lead to a misallocation of resources and human labor. Frank asks, if there‟s so many problems, why do we even compete. For this he turns to studies of primates and brain chemistry. He points to data to understand why people engage in competitive spending, the findings of monkeys show that the monkeys who compete and succeed have higher levels of serotonin. This is associated with feelings of pleasure and contentment. This suggests that physiologically good to be high status. People compete because when they win their serotonin spikes and they feel good. Competitive displays of status feels physiologically good. Essman – “America is a middle class nation” When surveyed, overwhelming amounts of Americas believe themselves to be middle class. It‟s how Americans think of themselves. Theres a huge variety within the class, but we all feel middle class. A few historical trends have confounded these distinctions. Earlier in the th 20 century there was a sharper divide between people, between the white collar office workers and manual laborers. Several trends have eroded these distinctions  Post WWII economic boom increased the prosperity of working class people. They could buy homes and send their kids to college. They could do things that look middle class  Rise of the low wage service sector. You‟re working in a clean office, you dress nice, but it‟s low pay, heavily routinized, requires little education, etc.  Bifurcation of American job market – vast majority of new jobs are either high skill high pay, or low skill low pay. This makes the value of your B.A. increase. With higher education you‟re qualified for high skill high pay jobs. Midterm Thursday of week 5. Whole class period to work on it. 2 components. 30 multiple choice, 5 choices each. Scantrons providedjust bring a pencil and a pen.\ 2 short essays, one side of paper each Focus on lecture slides that also showed up in readings. You will know the essay prompts ahead of time. They will be drawn from discussions in TA sections. You will be given 4 questions, and 2 will be on the test. Sociology 1 Lecture Notes 04.21.2011 How to get articles in the library 1. Consider what is interesting to you about the subject. Good thing is there‟s a sociological aspect to anything you‟re interested in 2. Library web page a. Search and find – catalogue i. Use advanced search “sociolog?” 3. Article data base – journal articles a. For this assignment needs scholarly sources – peer reviewed b. Search and find – data bases i. Data bases by subject Soc lecture Culture of Poverty  Theory that poor people adopt practices that are distinct from middle class mainstream ones  These practices help the poor survive in difficult economic times o These practices are adaptive, in that they do it to helpt hem survive o However, these practices can become detrimental, and often these practices are not stopped being practiced by the poor people even after they become detrimental  Perverse incentives – reward structures that lead to undesirable outcomes by encouraging counterproductive behavior, which is to say by keeping them on welfare they don‟t seek work  Culture of poverty theory has been used to blame the poor for their circumstances  Banfields the unheavenly city – poor trapped in their lives because its their fault and they do dumb things, like not save mone  However this argument is an example of circular logic.  A theory that goes one step further  Idea of the underclass – poor are different from the mainstream, unable o take advantage of what society has to argue, to the extent of being deviant and dangerous to the rest of us – Ken Auletta  Charles Murray responds – poor respond same way to economic incentives like everyone else. He still disagrees with generous welfare policies  William Julius Wilson suggests an important alternative argument o He suggests that we look at a much broader range of structural changes in US in the world, contributing to poverty  De-industrialization  Globalization  Suburbanization  Discrimination  Gentrification  Many processes responsible for destroying labor opportunities for poor people  Wilson also argues this leads to a dearth of employed men for women to marry. Wrecking the marriage market o Making it hard for poor people to create economically stable families  Wilson‟s research prompted an important shift in how researchers approach poverty issues. o Now people focus on structural reasons why people have trouble moving from welfare to work o Policies have focused on “making work pay” o Shift towards removing some of the perverse incentives. Making welfare not infinite, rather on a time limit  Important question – cause or consequence o Do things like crime, low educational attainment, divorce, lead to poverty, or result form it? o Is poverty a cause or a consequence of social problems  Leave you with a question – how can we as a society help the poor without creating perverse incentives  Absolute poverty – point at which household income no longer sufficient to provide food for household members o However this could be different in different places, due to different cost of living  People have suggested alternatives – relative poverty Midterm  Thursday, april 28  Includes material up to and including next Tuesdays lecture – race and ethnicity  30ish multiple choice, 2 short essays o Essays are a side of a page each.  Essay topics – 4 possibilities, 2 will be on there 1. Functionalism and Conflict theory. How would the two differ in their understanding of inequality 2. What is the panopticon? 3. Cultural meaning of marriage in Hull‟s study 4. According to Gans, what are the uses of the underclass in America Sociology 1 Lecture Notes 04.26.2011 Lecture content will be on exam, but the corresponding reading will not. Race Race is a social construct that changes across time and across different contexts Sometimes our conception of race involves phenotypes – outward physical appearance However, genetically speaking, Humans are almost identical with one another, compared to other species. However, race is meaningful on a social level There have been many historical efforts to explain race, and many of these efforts were biased. Scientists were dressing up their prejudices in the mantles of science. Darwin is an example of such a racist scientist. He had a theory of natural selection. Racist 19 century scientists mis-appropriated his ideas too create social Darwinism. This is the idea that certain groups of people were more fit for survival, and naturally superior. Eugenics – pseudoscience of examining genetic lines and inheritable traits to selectively breed more desirable traits into society, and eliminate the undesirable traits. The problem for eugenics is that it‟s hard to find a biological basis for the qualities they were trying to find. It‟s hard to draw sharp lines. Race as a Social construct Race categorization changes over time. Prior to the year 2000, you did not have the option of selecting multiple races on the census. Now, government forms reflect the idea that you can have multiple racial identities. Racial categories have flexible boundaries. There is no enduring or universal boundary line for races. Racialization – how other people perceive you can be very meaningful for how you experience the realities of race. We can consider the example of arabs and muslims in the united states today. Arab is generally understood as an ethnicity, while muslim is a religion. Despite the diversity between arabs and muslims, in many ways the two terms are conflated. People perceive the two as the same. Thus arabs and muslims experienced racialization, the formation of a new racial identity in which new ideological boundaries of difference are drawn around a formerly unnoticed group of people. For example, muslims and arabs are mistakenly associated with 9/11 and hence discriminated against. Race and Ethnicity Race is often externally imposed, with categories based on perceived physical differences, and hierarchical. Ethnicity is more often embraced by group members from within. Its often connected with things like culture, language, and nationality, and not as closely associated with power differences. Ethnicity experience can be variable. For example, German Americans don‟t all get together and speak german. However, ethnicity can be a very cohesive salient experience. Sometimes, ethnic identities can become racialized, when it is subsumed under a forced label, a racial marker, and the idea of “otherness”. Symbolic Ethnicity – ethnic identity that is individualistic in nature and does not pose real social cost for the individual who chooses to adopt it. Mostly a way for Caucasian Americans to explore the experience of ethnicity in a low cost low risk manner. Research from Jennifer Lee – the diversity paradox Pay attention to Jennifer Lee because theres an exam question  Racialization and race relations – Concept of race has changed a lot what with new immigrants. Previously the scholarship was framed in a black/white way, but now there‟s Asians and latinos. We have an enormous population boom of brown people, complicating the color line. In certain metro areas, latinos outnumber blacks as the biggest minorities. Rising rates of intermarriang  Hart-seller act – its intention was to increase family members and people with professional skills into the united states. What people didn‟t anticipate was that Asians would mostly use this to come to America. It also opened the doors to professionals that were sorely needed like doctors and engineers. It also opened the door for Mexicans, some authorized, some not. Today, 80% of the immigrant stream is from asia and latin America  Consequence of this pluralism- its changing our ideas of what race means. Black and white had been the diametrically opposed categories. Now, people are aski9ng if Asians and lations are closer to Europeans‟ experience in the past, or are they becoming more racialized, and facing the same obstacles black people did. o Thus, is race becoming less important, or is it just changing  Scholars such as Andrew hacker, argue that there is always a binary division. He points to research showing that darker latinos have a „black‟ experience, while paler ones have a white experience  Lee is asking if we‟re moving into a white/non white divide, or a black/non black divide. Lee is in favor of the black / not black divide. Looking at rates of education and whatnot, immigrants‟ problems stem from their status as recent immigrants, and compared to blacks, Asians and latinos improve quickly over subsequent generations  Asians and Latinos are not becoming white, but their ethnicities are becoming more symbolic ethnicities. A caveat, the darker latinos can have a black experience  In a number of ways, todays immigrants are doing much better than immigrants from the early 20 th centuries. Theres a huge amount of progress. When European immigration stopped in the 20s, there was not a new flux of immigrants to keep refreshing the idea that these groups were different from native born white Americans. Because Asians and latinos keep coming, these groups do not assimilate. The flux of immigrants keeps refreshing the idea that these groups are other  Is a tri-racial race divide plausible? Yes, but what‟s more troubling is the huge gap between blacks and other minorities.  Black immigration – they are complicating the idea
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