Sex and Gender
• Sex: biological
• Gender: social/cultural characteristic assumed to be linked to a man
• Gender ideology: the totality of ideas that a society has about sex,
gender, and the natures of men and women, including their sexuality, and the
relations between the genders.
• Enculturation into gender roles begins early
• Friedl’s article on gender inequality has some fundamental issues
◦ Control of resources: men hunt, women do less
▪ This is an interplay of biology and culture
◦ When there is large game and scarcity, men are more
powerful and women have low status. Also, males acquire status by
controlling the distribution of scarce resources
◦ Gender relations are more egalitarian when there is smaller
game and other sources of food.
▪ This applies to our society….
▪ Men as CEO control the distribution by
controlling pay rates for men and women