PSYC 1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 7: Implicit Memory, Sensory Memory, Explicit Memory

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7 Feb 2017
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PSYC 1 Lecture 7 Part 9: Memory
Studying Memory
Retention measured by:
o Recall: retrieving information from your memory without any kind of cues
Short answer/essay question on an exam
o Recognition: when retrieving information from your memory and you do have
cues; recognizing memory from the options
Multiple choice question
o Relearning: reduction in the amount of time it takes for you to learn something a
second time
Memory includes three processes:
o Encoding: getting the information into your memory
o Storage: retaining of information in your memory
o Retrieval: getting the information out of memory
Memory a three-stage model:
o Sensory Memory: lasts about a fraction of a second in most cases, but can last
up to three or four seconds; doesn’t last long in order for you to pay attention
o Short-Term Memory: sensory memories that are thought about; information stays
here for 3-4 or up to 30 seconds
o Long-Term Memory: relatively permanent storage of information
Working Memory: conscious processing of information; newer understanding of short-
term memory
o Ex: standing in living room and imagining how it would look re-arranged
o Anxiety reduces capacity
Encoding Memories
Long-term memory can be either explicit memory (memory for facts/experiences; aka
declarative memory) or implicit memory (memory for skills/classically conditioned
responses; ex: riding a bike; aka nondeclarative memories; aka procedural memories)
Explicit memories encoded through effortful processing (conscious awareness of what
you’re thinking about and giving it attention; attention and conscious awareness)
Implicit memories encoded through automatic processing (unconscious)
Two kings of sensory memories iconic memories (sensory memory for vision) and
echoic memories (sensory memory for hearing)
Effortful processing improves long-term memory
o Chunking: same information in the same order but you’ve given the parts
meaning
Ex: breaking it apart
NBCCIAFBIIBM -> NBC CIA FBI IBM
o Mnemonics: memory aids
Ex: ROYGBIV
o Hierarchies: aka concept map; dividing it up into levels
Memory Storage
Sleep supports memory consolidation (neural storage of information)
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