PSYC 101 Lecture 6: Lecture 6 Notes

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PSYC 101
Adena Schachner

PSYC101 Lecture 6 Notes 4/25/17 - Origins of Social Knowledge o How do we determine who people are, who has a mind, or potential social partners? o Child must be able to identify faces to identify social beings - Identifying social partners: early beginnings o Early understanding of faces: newborns can imitate facial gestures of other people ▪ They’re mapping their face to the face of someone else ▪ Goal is to find faces right away ▪ We have the automatic and intuitive idea of face perception, seeing faces on inanimate objects; do newborns also have this? • Preferential looking: if you show newborns an upright and inverted face, the infants prefer to look at the upright face o At birth, newborns look for a top-heavy stimulus (denser face on the top than on the bottom) o Newborns have the innate preference for top-heavy stimulus, allowing them to learn more about people and faces more quickly o Face recognition ▪ Infants recognize/prefer mother’s face after 12 hours of exposure ▪ Telling apart other faces • Experiment: show infants the face of one individual human until habituated. Then show a novel face next to the original face. At 9 months, they look longer at the novel face, showing that they know the faces are different • Experiment: show infants the face of one monkey until habituated. Then show a novel face next to the original monkey face. At 9 months, cannot tell them apart, either because infants learn to distinguish human faces over the 1 9 months of life or infants start out distinguishing both monkeys and humans and learn not to distinguish monkeys over time. Test 6 months with the same experiment, and found that they can tell apart people and monkeys. Therefore, infants learn to not distinguish monkey faces over time. (narrowing of face processing) o Conclusion: our experiences shape our perceptual abilities. We become less sensitive to stimuli that are not commonly experienced o This narrowing of processing occurs in rhythm perception as well. At first, equally able to perceive complex and simple meters, then overtime get worse at the meter that you aren’t exposed to as much based on culture o Also with speech perception: people who learn Japanese lose the ability to distinguish between r and l sounds over time o Why? Because we improve the perception of things that we experience a lot at the expense of our ability to perceive other things ▪ The other race effect: depending on what race you usually see around you, you get worse at telling apart people of different
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