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Lecture 15

BISC403 Lecture 15: Lecture 15

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Biological Sciences
Olabisi Oyenike

Lecture XV – The Genetics of Cancer I. One name, different diseases; many things with one name II. Lost the ability to follow the normal control the body exerts on cells a. Escape the normal control mechanisms, continue to grow b. Malignant – invades and spreads c. Very different in every person III. Cancer is more bad luck than lifestyle or genes a. Random mutations could explain around 65% of cancer incidence b. Cancer cells are angry cells IV. Some causes a. Viruses or bacteria i. In the process of incorporating into the genome b. Chemicals c. Radiation d. Heredity e. Diet f. Hormones V. Familial risk VI. Two unifying themes about cancer genetics a. Cancer is a collection of diseases i. Multiple cancer phenotypes arise from mutations in genes that regulate cell growth and division ii. Environmental chemicals increase mutation rates and increase chances of cancer – mutagens; but they don’t cause cancer b. Cancer has a different inheritance pattern than other genetic disorders i. Inherited mutations can predispose to cancer, but the mutations causing cancer occur in somatic cells ii. Not a cancer-causing gene that is passed on, just increased predisposition iii. Mutations accumulate in clonal descendants of a single cell VII. The relative percentages of new cancers in the U.S. that occur at different sites a. 1/3 of females, ½ of males will develop cancer in their lifetime VIII. Population-based studies a. Compares cancer rates among various groups of people exposed to different factors or exhibiting different behaviors b. Cancers arise with different frequencies in different areas of the world c. Is it genetics or environment? d. Studies on people who have moved from one country to another suggest that exposure to risk factors for cancer varies by geographic location e. Conclusion: not a genetic thing to have predisposition to c
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