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Lecture 14

Lecture 14 -- Subsistence & Economics.docx

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University of Florida
ANT 2000
Elyse Anderson

Subsistence & Economics  Food foraging societies = mode of subsistence involving combination of hunting, fishing, and gathering of wild plants; less than 0.005% of the world’s population currently  Healthy and well-rounded life; lifestyle not an ancient relic; contemporary HGs (hunter-gatherers) are part of the world system with ties that extend far beyond community (tendency to have more leisure time overall; used to think could not really be healthy and fit but actually can)  Horticulturalists = the cultivation of crops in food gardens carried out with simple hand tools; production for the household and surplus used for feasts and exchange  Horticulturalists tend to supplement with hunting, fishing, and gathering; most widespread cultivation approach is slash-and-burn agriculture  Agriculturalists = intensive crop cultivation; employing plows, fertilizers, and/or irrigation; instead of letting the land regenerate on its own, they are actually affecting the land to increase its yield  Agriculturalists provide community surplus, able to support full-time craft specialists and non- producing consumers; surplus traded or sold for cash or other goods, may be coerced from farmers through tax, rent, etc.; specialists live in towns and cities, which is under control of central governing elite  Pastoralism = the breeding and managing of migratory herds of….  Herds owned by families, who don’t always have “settled” homes because they follow the herds to new pastures on routine basis; effective way of living in dry, cold, and rocky areas (where typically can’t produce agriculture); animals and byproducts (fur, milk, etc.) exchanged for goods from farmers and merchants  Intensive agriculture in industrial societies  Industrial society = a society in which human labor, hand tools, and animal power are largely replaced by machines, with an economy primarily based on big factories/companies  Industrial food production = large-scale business involved in mass food production, processing, and marketing, which primarily rely on labor saving machines  Far-reaching economic, social, and political consequences; large corporations, own enormous tracts of land, mass produced and marketed food to feed large urban populations  ………….  Economic system = an organized arrangement for producing, distributing, and consuming foods  Cultural “rules” govern the kinds of work to be done, who does the work, how they do it, and who controls it; as well as what is consumed, how, when, and why  All societies regulate the allocation of land, water, and other valuable resources; in nonindustrial societies, individual ownership of land is rare; generally land is controlled by kinship groups, such as the lineage or band; industrial societies have system of private land ownership (can you own land? How would that go about?)  Labor is a key resource in any economic system  Two features are almost always present in human cultures = a basic division of labor by gender and by age  Generally assumed = women tend to do domestic activities and men do activities that take them away from home and have higher risk  Many exceptions to this = women regularly carry out physically demanding labor in many societies, cross-culturally  Women soldiers = Russian women in WWII; North Vietnamese women in Vietnam  Flexible/integrated pattern = most common among food foragers and subsistence farmers; nearly equal participation in activities for men and women; boys and girls learn to value cooperation over competition; adult men and women interact with each other on a relatively equal basis (in terms of overall status)  Segregated pattern = exact opposite; almost all work defined as either masculine or feminine (idea of crossing those work circumstances would be considered demeaning); men and women rarely engage in joint efforts; frequently seen in pastoral nomadic, intensive agricultural, and industrial societies, where men’s work keeps them outside the home for much of the time  Balanced, compleme
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