CBIO 2200 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Helen Keller, Alka-Seltzer, Negative Feedback

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Published on 22 Aug 2016
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EXAM 1 CBIO 2200 STUDY GUIDE
Chapter 1:
1. Why study Anatomy and Physiology?
- We must understand normal structure and function so you’re able to
identify abnormal or incorrect function
-We must understand mechanisms of therapies used to treat dysfunction
-Identify targets for new therapies
-If you understand what is wrong with the patient, you can compose a
mechanism to treat them
We are trying to understand “How does the human body work?”
2. Pathophysiology vs. Physiology
Pathophysiology: functional changes associated with disease and aging
Anatomy: the branch of biology concerned with the study of the structure of
organisms and their parts.
Physiology: The branch of biology that deals with the study of organ function and
interaction. OR The branch of biology that deals with the normal functions of
living organisms and their parts.
3. Levels of organization of the human body:
a) Chemical
b) Cellular
c) Tissue
d) Organ
e) Organ system
f) System
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Necessary life functions of humans:
-Maintain boundaries
-Movement (both walking and the movement of substances in the
internal environment)
-Respond to stimuli in the environment
-Metabolism/Digestion
-Excretion
-Reproduction
-Differentiation
-Growth
4. HOMEOSTASIS
a) The “overall job” of every system in the body
b) Balance!
“Condition of equilibrium (balance) in the body’s internal environment..”
Interplay of many, many processes
Maintain certain, particular internal conditions
-Body temperature
-Blood glucose
-Internal chemical reactions operate at specific pHs (certain enzymes work best in
certain pHs. Proteins can become denatured at the wrong temperatures)
Why did we watch a video about Helen Keller? Helen Keller had scarlet fever and
was sick for more than a week, losing her sight and hearing. Because the temp was
disrupted and she therefore lost sight and hearing, it’s interesting to see the
correlation.
5. Feedback and feedback systems
a) Maintain homeostasis
In a negative feedback loop, a stimulus- a deviation from a set point- is resisted
through a physiological process that returns the body to homeostasis
-A negative feedback loop has four basic parts
-Body temperature is regulated by negative feedback
stimulus, receptor, control center, and effector (four parts)
The effector brings about a change that restores the homeostasis
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The response “feeds back” to affect the stimulus (hence, “feedback”)
BODY TEMPERATURE IS REGULATED BY NEGATIVE FEEDBACK
Temperature Rises (stimulus)
Receptor/sensor (thermostat)
Control Center (also thermostat)
Effector (AC unit)
Response (Temperature falls)
Negative feedback because the temperature is increasing, but the response is a
decrease in temperature. The stimulus and response are in opposite directions.
The response negates the effect of the stimulus.
A positive feedback loop is when the stimulus is reinforced by the response- less
common in physiology because then net result is that the response pushes you
further away from that set point. Positive feedback loops are more likely to become
life threatening. (like blood clots)
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