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GEOG 2110L (50)
Lecture

GEOLOGIC TIME SCALE.docx

3 Pages
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Department
Geography
Course Code
GEOG 2110L
Professor
David Stanley

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GEOLOGIC TIME SCALE * a method of indicating the age of the Earth * a sequence based on relative positions of rock strata(layers) * is a relative time scale * assumes superposition: that younger rocks & sediments are near the top of a formation, & older material is near the bottom * is governed by uniformitarianism * absolute ages are determined by methods such as radioactive isotope dating GEOLOGIC CYCLE ** The vast cycling of material that occurs in and on the lithosphere, encompassing the hydrologic, tectonic, & rock cycles * the building and wearing down of landforms * 3 components: hydrologic cycle: tectonic cycle: rock cycle: ROCK CYCLE What are rocks? * mineral: an element or combination of elements that forms an inorganic natural compound which has specific qualities, such as a unique crystalline structure, hardness, etc. Ex: Silicates, based on silicon(Si);Carbonates, based on carbon(C) (These together make-up 90% of all minerals.) * 3000 minerals, only about 10-20 make up 90% of the crust * rock: * sometimes as a mass of a single mineral * thousands of rock types, but all the result of 3 rock-forming processes: igneous, sedimentary, & metamorphic * the interactions/interrelationships between these 3 processes is the Rock Cycle Igneous Process & Rocks: * formed by crystallization of magma; the solidifying of magma(lava) either below or above the surface * may cool fast creating a fine-grained structure (extrusive) or slow creating a coarse-grained structure (intrusive) * intrusive types: form below the surface within the crust EX:
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