CH 111 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Intermolecular Force, Polarizability, Covalent Bond

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6 Feb 2017
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CH 11: Lecture I
A Molecular Comparison of Gases, Liquids, and Solids
Gas
Assumes both volume and shape of its container
Expands to fill its container
Is compressible
Flows readily
Diffusion within a gas occurs rapidly
Kinetic energies >> energies of
attraction
Liquid
Assumes shape of portion of container it occupies
Does not expand to fill its container
Is virtually incompressible
Flows readily
Diffusion with a liquid occurs slowly
Comparable kinetic energies
and energies of attraction
Solid
Retains own shape and volume
Does not expand to fill its container
Is virtually incompressible
Does not flow
Diffusion within a solid occurs extremely slowly
Energies of attraction >>
kinetic energies
Atoms in a solid can vibrate in place. As the temperature of the solid increases, the vibrational
motion increases.
Intermolecular forces forces that exist between molecules
Weaker than intramolecular forces (ionic, metallic, or covalent bonds)
Less energy is required to vaporize a liquid or melt a solid
Melting and Boiling Points
o Boiling Points (liquids) reflect the strength of intermolecular forces
molecules must overcome their attractive forces to separate and
form a vapor
stronger attractive forces = higher temperature at which the
liquid boils
o Melting Points (solids) increase as the strengths of the intermolecular
forces increase
o M&B Points of substances in which particles have chemical bonds are
higher than substances in which the particles are held by intermolecular
forces
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