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Lecture 5

ANTH 103 Lecture 5: ANTH 103 5. Making a Living

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ANTH 103
A Lee

5. Making a Living 2016 12 10 10:45 Subsistence strategy The way a society transforms environmental resources into food Population density The number of people inhabiting a given area of land Productivity Yield per person per unit of land Efficiency Yield per person per hour of labor invested Foraging (hunting A foodgetting strategy that does not involve food production or and gathering) domestication of animals and that involves no conscious effort to alter the environment Pastoralism A foodgetting strategy that depends on the card of domesticated herd animals Nomadic A form of pastoralism in which the whole social group (men, women, and pastoralism children) and their animals move in search of pasture Horticulture Production of plants using a simple, nonmechanized technology Fields are not used continuously Agriculture A form of food production in which fields are in permanent cultivation using plow, animals, and techniques of soil and water control Peasants Rural cultivators who produce for the subsistence of their households but are also integrated into larger, complex state societies Industrialism A system of production dependent on investments in machinery, technology, communication, and information Industrial agriculture is patterned after manufacturing Globalization The integration of resources, labor, and capital into a global network How human cultural practices impact environment Industrialized agriculture has brought many problems into the environment In earlier societies, people lived in close contact with the natural world, using very simple but efficient technologies From the moment Europe contacted other part of the world, their culture affected the environment Domestic animals consumed the crops of indigenous people for their fashion Demands for tropical hardwoods = no rainforests Sugar and tobacco = monocrop agriculture = slavery Dam building = no spawning of salmon, which is huge concern for Native Americans Global warming has also had effect on the environment from oil consumption and carbon emissions
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