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Lecture 1

CLCIV 101 Lecture 1: Greek Civilization 101 Midterm

11 pages42 viewsFall 2016

Department
Classical Civilization
Course Code
CLCIV 101
Professor
Richard Janko
Lecture
1

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Greek Civilization 101 Midterm
Minoans Society
2000-1600 B.C.
Invention of sailing ships and writing (Linear A)
Creteseparated from the mainland by 75 miles an island on the southern part of the Aegean
Cnossusmassive palace on the northern tip of Crete
King Minoswhy they are called Minoanswife had sex with a bull and then they had
a Minotaur baby that he put in a labyrinth
o Theseuskilled the Minotaur who was madly in love with his daughter^^
1750 BCin the middle of the bronze age civilization collapse
Probably from earthquakes
Palaces were then rebuilt better
o Palaces controlled a command economyredistributing stuff
Used Linear Awriting systems used to keep track
Volcano of Theratown of Akrotiri buried under volcanic ash 1600 BC thought to have ended
the Minoan Society but it lasted till 1500
Mycenaean Society (1500-1200)
More warlike than Minoans and wealth was less diffused
Linear Bwriting system they used after they took over Minoan Greecewas a
syllabary of 8 or so signs
Polytheismworshipped many Greek gods, Zeus, Hera, etc.
Homergreat epic poetlived 400 years after the Mycenaean Palaces which were
destroyed around 1200who said he got his information from Muses
o His verses were hexameterverses of 6 measures
End of the Bronze Agestorm of earthquakes over many years could have left Greece
in shambles or the Sack of Troy could have taken too much out of Greece
o Sea Peoplefound in Pylos tables Philistines, pottery indistinguishable from
Mycenaeanbegan migrating until Ramses III of Egypt stopped them
They found evidence of these battles and they eventually inhabited Palest
The Dark Ages
1200-800 BC
Most of the Greek states fell the hardest and took the longest time to recoverdue to
movement of many people and great political and social instability
o Pop fell 70-90%
o All forms of writing disappeared
Protogeometricconcentric circles and semicircles drawn by compass to produce many
semi circles and parallel lines
Made a way to develop Iron
o Then made a way to develop steel which became ubiquitous around Greece
Began trading with Phoenicians (invented vowels) and they developed their alphabet off
theirs
o However, no one was telling anyone what to make/produce
o 8th centurypeople begin making more food as people began owning land and
making people work on it (inequality)
Basileisemerging strong men/kings of these poleis who had a strong
sense of community (pretty much a village)
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People wanted justice so that they could grow food without getting
murdered
8th Century Renaissance Culture
o Greek Alphabet
Based on the Phoenician scripteach sign stands for a constant and an
implied vowel
Rise of the City State
700-500 BC
First govt. evolved to be ruled by Oligarchyrule of the few usually aristocrats to rule
the demospeople
Land and labor were the bases of wealth in Greece and disputes were settled by
basileusno written law
o hierarchy: basileusvillage elderspublic assembly
Polis was barely even a city state they had <1,000 men
Warmainly based on hoplitesheavy infantry men, that went shoulder to shoulder in a
phalanx6-8 rank deep unit of soldiers
o Good fighters wanted to have say in politics
Symposiums Agothoi- aristocrats went to private parties in which people would meet
to drink but every act of drinking would begin with a libation
Moneyinvented in Lydia in the 600 BC
o Every city state would have its own form of currency
Hesiod’s 5 ages of men
o Golden AgeCronus ruled and no one grew old or had to work
o Silver Agelived to 100 years but Zeus kills them
o Bronze AgeOnly concerned with war and fighting
o Age of HeroesKilled they were demigods in Thebes and Troy
o Age of Ironage he is living in and everyone has to work extremely hard
Thinks Zeus is going to destroy them all
A lot of people=harder on the land
o Inequality of wealth
Kings would accept bribes and get richer, poor people get poorer
Bigger farms get richer and poor people start working for them and are
now indebted
Archaic Age 700-500 BC
o Primary Source was lyric poem/ archeology
o Greek was all over the Mediterranean
o Class warfare
Aristocrats overthrow monarch
Poor struggle against aristocrats
Aristocrats struggle against each other
Rise of middle class because of invention of money & hoplite warfare
Tyrants
o They gathered enough forces and standing armies to bully everyone else out of
the way
Some faked attacks on themselves so that they could get bodyguards
o After 500 BC tyrants largely disappeared
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o Ostracismcitizen with the highest votes (thought to be the most dangerous of
being a tyrant)
o
Archaic Cultural Revolution
Ionian Enlightenmentbegan in Miletus (Part of Ionia) and they began asking why
things did such and how
o Milesians were the first to say that natural causes other than Gods controlled
things
o Thales580s BC thought primary element was water (from Miletus)
Predicted solar eclipse in 585 BC
Calculated the height of the pyramids
Suggested earth floated on water
His disciple vvvv
o Anaximander550s BC said earth hung in nothingness held equally distant from
everything else in the cosmos
Primary element=the infinite
Believed men evolved from another animal
Drew the first known map of the world
Thought moon and sun had bigger orbits than the earth
o Anaximenes520s BC thought infinite was air ^^
o Pythagorasfrom the island of Samos near Miletus
First to call the universe Kosmos “ordered whole”
He believed that # was the basis of this kosmos
Created the Pythagorean theorem
Founded the mathematical relationship between intervals and harmony in
music
o Herodotus “first historian” 484 BC gave an account of the Persian invasion of
Greece which was the first attempt to keep human events
He was the successor of Hecataeus
He had no system of chronology and therefore he is not always accurate
Greek Poets
700-500 BC (Archaic Age)
Only used verse structure because it was easy to remember/pass down (orally usually)
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