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Lecture 1

PSYCH 112 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Claude Shannon, Explanandum And Explanans

1 pages33 viewsWinter 2019

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Brian Malley

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Psych Lecture 1
Scientific explanation!
How is a specific object or event a specific genus or kind and not something else !
Psychology looks like—> you have energy to do something, whats driving the energy, what
type of energy!
Explanandum: what you have to explain!
Explanans: explanation of it !
Energy and form!
understanding what form or structure is much harder to discover!
Form is why do things take the organization they do and not some other organization!
Structure: information theory!
information: Measurement of how much structure there is in something, measure of
structural complexity!
Claude Shannon: publishes “a mathematical theory of communication”!
How can I get one phone booth to talk to another phone booth?!
Famous for quantifying information !
His framework!
Source—> transmits signal through some kind of channel—>picked up by receiver —>
message is received by decoder!
Shannon’s problem!
To choose an ecient code!
To choose a channel with sucient capacity!
To ensure an adequate level of redundancy!
Comes up with measurement of a signals structural complexity—> a measurement of a
stimulus’ structural complexity!
environment—> stimulus—> agent!
Entropy: H source > H signal > H message!
Information “any dierence that makes a dierence”!
Datum: a dierence available for processing!
Cognitive agent: an information- processing agent!
When environmental change happens the agent cannot respond with something more
complex than amount of information coming in, unless the agent has a history of learning!
Bit is measurement of information: binary digit!
Information is a measure of the amount of structure!
Explanatory strategies!
Existence game!
Stability: given x, x is a stable form!
origin, accident, duration: stability, key: chance!
Manufacture: given y, x is produced by y!
Origin: manufacture, durability: repair, key: economic failure, informational failure!
Origin: reproduction, durability: self-repair, key: energetic failure, informational failure!
Manufacture and reproduction more important for psych!
Both involve agents exploiting properties of environment
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