PSYCH 112 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Claude Shannon, Explanandum And Explanans
1 pages33 viewsWinter 2019
Course CodePSYCH 112
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Psych Lecture 1
•How is a speciﬁc object or event a speciﬁc genus or kind and not something else !
•Psychology looks like—> you have energy to do something, whats driving the energy, what
type of energy!
•Explanandum: what you have to explain!
•Explanans: explanation of it !
•Energy and form!
•understanding what form or structure is much harder to discover!
•Form is why do things take the organization they do and not some other organization!
Structure: information theory!
•information: Measurement of how much structure there is in something, measure of
•Claude Shannon: publishes “a mathematical theory of communication”!
•How can I get one phone booth to talk to another phone booth?!
•Famous for quantifying information !
•Source—> transmits signal through some kind of channel—>picked up by receiver —>
message is received by decoder!
•To choose an eﬃcient code!
•To choose a channel with suﬃcient capacity!
•To ensure an adequate level of redundancy!
•Comes up with measurement of a signals structural complexity—> a measurement of a
stimulus’ structural complexity!
•environment—> stimulus—> agent!
•Entropy: H source > H signal > H message!
•Information “any diﬀerence that makes a diﬀerence”!
•Datum: a diﬀerence available for processing!
•Cognitive agent: an information- processing agent!
•When environmental change happens the agent cannot respond with something more
complex than amount of information coming in, unless the agent has a history of learning!
•Bit is measurement of information: binary digit!
•Information is a measure of the amount of structure!
•Stability: given x, x is a stable form!
•origin, accident, duration: stability, key: chance!
•Manufacture: given y, x is produced by y!
•Origin: manufacture, durability: repair, key: economic failure, informational failure!
•Origin: reproduction, durability: self-repair, key: energetic failure, informational failure!
•Manufacture and reproduction more important for psych!
•Both involve agents exploiting properties of environment
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