Critiques of Black Nationalism
How does he describe the philosophy of Black Nationalism?
• land, independence, nation
• empower black communities because they already exist separately from white
• self-help for black communities
• "black man should control the politics in his own community"
• "should own and operate . . . in our own communities"
What are its key tenets and why does he think these are more important and valuable than
those offered by King and the mainstream Civil Rights Movement?
• Defines this as a philosophy of "self-help," or self-empowerment, independence, and
freedom for blacks
• "True" or "Black" revolutionary goals of political, economic, and social/cultural
independence, self-reliance, self-sufficiency
• Compare to key goals of Civil Rights Movements: integration and equality with Whites
How and why does he think the civil rights movement should change?
• Encourages shifting attention from civil rights to Human Rights
◦ The problem of civil rights (rights in a legal system) as a domestic legal
institution, doesn't want to rely on the government/legal system
◦ Skepticism regarding US government
◦ Desire for cross-national/international solidarity among people of color and
• Criticizes King