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Lecture 1

PSYCH 2245 Lecture 1: Abpsych ch1

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PSYCH 2245

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Abnormal Psychology Unit 1 Learning Objectives PSYCH 2245-Chapter 1 Lecture 1-Abnormal Behavior in Historical Context 1. Define abnormal behavior and describe psychological dysfunction, distress, and atypical or unexpected cultural responses  Abnormal Behavior: A response in an individual that is usually caused by distress or impairment and produced a response in that individual that is not normally occurring in that culture.  Psychological Dysfunction: Most commonly identified by a noticeable decline in functioning of mental processes, emotional processes, or behavioral processes.  Psychological Distress: When the individual experiences extreme emotional turmoil  Atypical or unexpected Cultural Responses: A response that does not occur frequently in the population or which violates social norms. 2. Describe the scientist-practitioner model  Scientist-Practitioner Model: Can function in one or more of three ways:  First  The individual can be up to date on all the developments occurring in their field and utilize them in practice to ensure patients they are receiving the best possible care.  Second  They constantly test their procedures to make sure they are efficient in producing accurate results. These must be in working order to assure patients and government agencies that their money and trust is well- placed.  Third  They may do their own research to produce new methods such as diagnosis and treatment to keep away from “fads” of the field that may not be effective. 3. Place psychopathology in its historical context by identifying historical conceptions of abnormal behavior in terms of supernatural influences  From 900-600 B.C., during the Roman empire, both mental and physical disorders were thought by many to be the work of the devil. th  When the Catholic Church split in the late 14 century, nearly all sectors of society began to believe that things such as witches and demon existed.  Many believed that any misfortune that came upon the community was caused by people being possessed by evil spirits, so drastic measures were taken to fight against the scourge of the devil.  Actions such as exorcisms, shaving the cross into people’s hair, and chaining people to the front of churches so the evil spirits could be warded away by hearing mass were all used.  However, closer to the enlightenment period, more rational and less satanic views were taken on the matter  People now considered the idea that insanity was a result of mental/emotional stress that that there could be a cure to the problem.  Anxiety and depression were now recognized as illnesses. However, the associated symptoms of such ailments like sadness and lack of motivation to do things were commonly associated with sin in the church of acedia, or sloth.  The basic treatments of these problems were sleep and immersing the afflicted in a happy and nourishing environment as well as ointments, potions, and cleansing baths.  However, people were still primarily religious and many thought these illnesses were God punishing them for bad deeds  Treatments: exorcism, confinement, beatings, torture, physical shocks such as dunking in ice barrels, or trying to scare off the demons by suspending the individual over a pit of venomous snakes.  Mass Hysteria  Oftentimes in Europe, there were occurrences of people having compulsions to gather in the streets and jump, shout, and dance in patterns together. Also known as Saint Vitus’s Dance or tarantism, the experts of the towns attributed this behavior to bug bites or contagious emotions.  Paracelsus and the moon  He thought that the moon’s gravitational pull or stages had an impact on human’s bodily fluids and in turn caused mental disorders  “Lunatic”….Luna=Moon 4. Trace the major historical developments and underlying assumptions of the biological approach to understanding human behavior  Hippocrates  A Greek physician who wrote the Hippocratic Corpus which stated that any disease of the mind could be treated just like a physical disease. In this book, he attributed mental diseases as being caused by heredity or trauma. He thought that because the mind was the source of intelligence, emotion, and consciousness that the disorders that caused problems with these elements would be located there.  Coined the term hysterical which was used to describe somatic system disorders  These disorders are recognized by physical impairments which seem to have no identifiable physical cause such as blindness or paralysis  The Egyptians thought that it was caused only in women by a “wandering uterus”, which they thought could only be cured by marriage or vagina fumigation.  Syphilis was one of these diseases, which caused many mental symptoms and resulted in death of the individual.  It was then that physicians noticed the difference between people with syphilis and other mentally ill people: Most mentally ill people seemed outwardly fine whereas people with syphilis eventually died. This was the first time that a mental illness was treated as a physical disease (done with the use of malaria- infected blood and sometimes warded off the bacteria from the brain but not always and can no longer be used as treatment due to ethics).  Galen  Roman physician that developed the humoral theory  Believed functioning of the brain was due to the levels of humors (liquids) that included blood, black bile, yellow bile, and phlegm. This was the first time that a mental disorder was associated with any form of biological imbalance in the body.  Humors tied to the Greeks’ four common qualities which included cold, dryness, heat, and moisture and the disorders were treated by regulation of these qualities.  Two treatments  Bleeding or bloodletting: Blood was taken out of the afflicted individual’s body, commonly by leeches  Induce vomiting  China  Instead of using the idea of humors in the body, they thought the movement of wind or lack thereof caused mental disorders  Blockages correlated to cold and dark (yin)  Movement correlated to warm and life-sustaining (yang)  Treatment included trying to get the flow to increase with methods such as acupuncture  John P. Grey  American psychologist who focused on biological tradition and thought that mental disorders always had a physical cause and demanded the mentally ill be treated in hospitals just like physically ill people.  Treatments  Proper ventilation, rest, modified diet  Mental Hospitals  Became more humane because the patients were treated as if they were not responsible for their diseases as they had been in the past  Became more crowded, and thus more impersonal  Led to deinstitutionalization of patients that only added to the homeless population  1930s electric shock and brain surgery  Most treatment methods were discovered by accident  Insulin Shock  Used most commonly in mental hospitals to get patients to eat and calm them down. However, as overdosing often occurred to sedate the patients, they discovered that it caused patients to become comatose, convulse, and sometimes cure them. However, in later years it was barred from use because of the high death rate.  Electric Shock  Benjamin Franklin  Through experiments of mild electric shock he concluded that no long-term damage resulted and only produced small convulsions or memory loss  A friend of his tried the same experiment and reported feelings of elation he believed could treat depression  1920s: Joseph von Meduna  He thought he had discovered a pattern that people with epilepsy never exhibited schizophrenia (not true), and believed that if he caused seizures in people with schizophrenia that it would cure them.  1938: Ugo Cerletti and Lucio Bini  Administered 6 shocks to a patient with depression that cured them  Modified shock therapy is still used  Early Drug Production  1950s:  First effective drugs were developed  Rauwolfia Serpentine (reserpine)  neuroleptics (major tranquilizers)  hallucinations and delusions could be diminished for the first time  controlled agitation and aggressiveness  benzodiazepines (minor tranquilizers)  Reduced anxiety  1970s: benzodiazepines became some of the most prescribed drug
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