BIOL 4220 Lecture Notes - Lecture 8: Ferromagnetism, Positron, Positron Emission Tomography

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10 Dec 2017
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CAT scan (computer-aided tomography)
CT scan
X-ray in 3D
Use computer model to reconstruct 3D image
Visualize the structure in 3D
X-ray measure hard tissue (radio-opaque)
Inject Barium (radio-opaque) in blood
Show up in x-ray
Stroke
Outline the blood vessel
See where blockade is
PET scan (positron emission tomography)
Positron vs. electron
Radioactive dye (molecule) tagged, emit positron (unstable)
Positron emission as label for the radioactive tagged label
Usually trace neurotransmitter
MRI (magnetic resonance imaging)
NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance)
Water molecule
Dipole
Oscillate in magnetic field
Resonate with induce magnetic field
Observe relaxation time of water molecule
Most cells are made up water
Detects cells (soft tissue)
Static image of the tissues
Anatomical structure of brain tissues
fMRI (functional MRI)
Measure activity of brain
Hemoglobin molecule (Hb)
Dexoxy-Hb molecule is ferromagnetic
Oxy-Hb is not ferromagnetic
Put in strong magnetic field
Oscillate
Induce oscillation in deoxy-Hb only (but not oxy-Hb)
Can Measure deoxy-Hb conc ONLY
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