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PSY 235 (9)

Chapter 9

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University of Rhode Island
PSY 235
Taryn Aldrich

11/5/13 Chapter 9 Humanistic, Existential, and PositiveAspects of Personality Existentialism • An area of philosohy concerned with the meaning of human existance • “Being-in-the-world” ◦ Must examine human beings in their world ◦ The self cannot exist without the world • Phenomenal approach ◦ Subjective realities are important Humanism • An area of philosophy that emphasizes the personal worth of the individual and the importance of human values • “The third force” ◦ Emphasizes the creative, spontaneous, and active nature of the human beings ◦ Third after psychoanalysis and behaviorism • The human potential movement ◦ People are encouraged to realize their inner potentials ◦ Uses group meetings, self disclosure, and introspection Erich Fromm • Love ◦ Allows us to overcome our isolation but still maintain our individual integrity ◦ Loving is an art ◦ Modern society encourages existential alienation • Dialectal humanism ◦ Reconciles the biological, driven side of human beings and the pressure of societal structure ◦ Believes people can transcend these forces thorough free will Carl Rogers • Responsibility ◦ People have an inherent tendency toward growth and maturation ◦ “Becoming ones self” ◦ People must strive to take responsibility for themselves • Rogerian psychotherapy derives from Rogers' personality theory • For constructive personality change: ◦ Therapist is supportive and nondirective ◦ Therapist is client oriented ◦ Therapist provides the client with unconditional positive regard ◦ Therapist provides empathetic understanding of client's internal frame of reference • Importance of “congruence” ◦ For therapist (and client) ◦ Accurate self-perception ◦ Accurate communication Anxiety and dread • Rollo May • Anxiety is triggered by a threat to the core values of existence • We search for meaning in our lives when anxious • Victor Frankl ◦ Importance of personal choice ◦ Logotherapy ▪ Emphasizes the importance of choosing to find the meaning in life • Existential-humanistic approaches and support groups Abraham Maslow • Hierarchy of needs ◦ Only self-actualization is at the “being-level” (B-motive) ◦ The other needs are “deficiency needs” (D-needs or D-motives) • Self actualization ◦ The innate process y which a person tends to gain spiritually and relaize his or her potential ◦ Self actualized people are spiritually fulfilled, comfortable with themselves, loving, ethical, creative and productive • Peak experiences ◦ Powerful experiences in which people seem to transcend the self, be at one with the world and feel completely self-fulfilled
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