PSYC 420 Lecture 5: Psych 420 Exam 1 Notes

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University of South Carolina - Columbia
PSYC - Psychology
PSYC 420

Psych 420: Survey of Developmental Psychology Chapter 1 Developmental science -study of constancy and change through the lifespan- can be looked at through many different perspectives. - interdisciplinary study, psychology, sociology, biology, education. - either scientific- basic research- aim to increase understanding. not aimed at solving a particular problem - or applied- resolving some sort of problem or being applied to a greater population—clinical psych, or education setting where people aim to use research findings to increase learning. -mulitple domains—- they all work together. 1. physical 2. cognitive 3. emotional 4. social learning to crawl is physical but it affects all of the other domains. Theories- used to draw attention to a subject, also give meaning, guide action towards further research. - describe - explain - predict Issues theories address - is development continuous or not? - one course of development or many? - what are the roles of nature and nurture? One course vs. many -contemporary views think its multi-layered and complex. -influences by genetics, biology, and environment -with different combination= different developmental paths. Nature vs. Nurture Nature- emphasize parents genetic influence- active at conception, inborn, and predetermined based on DNA. Nurture- influence of physical and social world on biological and psychological development. -before and after birth Theorists that emphasize nature emphasize heredity and stress stability. Also stress stability- little change over time. emphasize early experience. Theorists that emphasize nurture emphasize experience across lifespan. also stress change. Believe people are high in plasticity- adaptability. Lifespan perspectives- development is a dynamic system- ongoing, lifelong and also multidimensional and multidirectional, plastic- open to change based on experience. Theories of Development 6th-15th centuries (midieval) -childhood separate from adulthood - children vulnerable - allowed to be more relaxed. 16th century - puritan belief in original sin- parents believed they needed to civilize children - strict punishment- if misbehaved recommended they were beaten. - restrictive clothing. 17th century - john locke: child as “tabula rosa”- blank space - children are completely shaped by experience and opposed physical punishment. - nurture. 18th century- - jean-jacques Rousseau: children “noble savages” - natural morality - 4 discrete stages of development- infancy, childhood, late childhood, and adolescence - nature & discontinuous. 19th century - Darwin: evolutionary theory. realized no two individuals alike - believed development similar across species. animals and humans. drove research in that area and directed more attention. - Hall- founder of the child study movement - development as maturational process - nature Psychoanalytic Perspective - predominant in the early 20th century - people move through a series of stages - in each stage confront a conflict - how conflict is resolved shapes development for the positive or negative. - sigmund freud. Psychosexual theory - Freud - parents responsible for managing childs sexual and aggressive drives. - children move through a series of stages which includes conflicts. Freud on personality Id - biological needs and desires. present at birth. crying due to hunger, basic need met, warm and comfy, shelter Ego- rational thought, infancy, crying baby sees a bottle, being brought to it and starts crying. able to rationally control your biological needs. Superego- preschool years, conscience. - develops through interactions child has with parents. Psychosexual stages Oral: birth-1 year -issues: thumb sucking, fingernail biting, overeating, smoking. could cause these issues later on. - anal: 1-3 should master urine and feces training. too little or too much - issues could lead to extreme or lack of order and cleanliness. - phallic: 3-6 genital stimulation. feel attraction to opposite sex - battle with oedipus and electra complexes ( mother and father attraction) Latency: 6-11 years sexual calmed. - sexual instinct calmed . superego develops. Genital: adolescence to adulthood. - sexual interest reappears - leads to sex, and desire to raise and have children Psychosocial theory. - neo- freudian. - acknowldeges culture. - conflicts with continuum of responses. - more of a role of culture - Erik Erikson. - more contemporary Behaviorism -challenged psychoanalytic theories. challenged freud and erikson - focus directly observable events. - stimulus/response. - watson and raynor, 1920 Classical Conditioning. little albert - white rat—- neutral response— no fear or response pos or neg - loud noise- unconditioned— fear response - paired together- find they no longer need the unconditioned response, the rat become conditioned stimulus Skinner: increase or decrease behavior by reinforcements or punishments- operant conditioning. Social learning theory emerged as a result. -built on behaviorism. -emphasized modeling - motivation- come from history, future reinforcement or punishment. - introduces role of cognition -self efficacy- success on a test is due to your own ability and motivation - behavior modification- combines modeling and conditioning to increase good behaviors. - Albert Bandura Cognitive Developmental Theory -Jean Piaget - reinforcers not necessary to guide learning and development - children construct knowledge through interactions with their environment. *****look at the rest on bb….. posted . starting on ch 1 page 6 information processing theories. no stages of development but we are already born with it. emphasizes nature instead of nurture . ethology- lorenz focused on imprinting—- following. imprinting is good bc safety. higher chance they will be taken care of . promotes survival. -critical period-if imprinting doesn't occur with a certain amount of time, it doesn't occur at all. not typically case with humans sensitive periods- time where development is trying to occur. ex- language development. young kids are highly plastic. if neglect or hearing loss occurs, you will miss out. -john bowlby- young children try to form attachment to cargiver. different behaviors exhibited, smiling, grasp fingers, cry. promoting survival. -socioculture theory- development is culture specific. —beleifs, cultures, values can be transferred from one generation to next - vygotsky. -ecological systems theory- different systems interact with each other and change over time. break Research methods — important for article review assignments. Methods of data collection -Observation Naturalistic -occur in natural environment*playground, classroom. - pro: easy to observe everyday behavior - con:lack control, might see diff behavior based on amount of children. - observer bias- own expectations might influence how you process the behaviors. Structured - lab setting. - pro: can create environment, and hard to see behaviors; equal treatment. - can make the situation so everyone has equal oppurtunity. - con:behavior may be atypical. bc the environment is so structured. Observation issues: - observer infuence:effect of observant on participants behavior. - observer bias: aware and can over record what they expect to see. a way to prevent is to use blind observation- not aware of the hypothesis. - double blind: neither is aware. -Self -report/ interview method. Clinical: -flexible interviews: share thoughts, conversation. -pro: more natural, flexible. -con: inaccuracies- ppl want to portray themselves more positive, or even lie. also difficult to compare Structured: -interview/surbey;questions identical - pro: standardized, easy comparison and to process and analyze. - con: ppl can report inaccurate and a lack of depth in answers. Psychophysiological measures: -analyze relationship between physiological processes and behavior. Heart rate- measure attention/ emotions. when they are engaged their heart rate drops. if distracted/ tired, heart rate will increase. heart rate increases in periods of distress. - safe for all ages. - can look at it early and late in life to set up experiments. Electroencephalogram (EEG) - measure electrical activity on the scalp produced by bran. - examine brain activity over short or long time periods. - benefit: safe for all ages, however it doesn't give much info about where in the brain the activity is. MRI: scans produce 3D images of the brain. - appropriate for all ages. fMRI : tells more, detects change in blood flow and oxygen to measure changes due to neural activity. - not appropriate for young infants. Near-infrared spectroscopy- NIRS - infrared light measures blood flow and oxygenation. shine into brain and attempt to measure changes in blood flow and oxygenation. - not that strong, only pick up changes towards the surface. - safe for all ages. Case studies. - detailed study of one individual. - utilize interviews, obsercations, test scores, etc. - complete picture of functioning. General research desings Correlation design. - examine relationship between two variables. ex. test scores vs. a childs agreeableness. - report a correlation coefficient - based on magnitude. - direction- pos correlation reports positve relationship. ** correlation does not equal causation. Experimental design. - aimed at testing cause and effect. - Independent var- manipulated var, expected to cause change. - dependent- expected to be influenced by the IV. - utilize random assignment- picking random students. and matching- way to take potential variables and equalize across groups so they don't effect dependent var, IQ. Modified experiments -field experiments- use random assignment in natural settings. -natural experiment- quasi-experiment. compare differences that already exist. Designs for studying development -Longitudinal- same participants studied repeatedly at different time points and different ages. -adv: examine patterns and individual differences. -disadv: biased sampling-certain types of people will volunteer and selective attrition- participant drop out. Practice effects- idea that if you come in to participate and do the same task repeatedly, you will see improvement. Also cohort effect- unique things that make it hard to generalize. ex- school shooting may influence studnets, making it harder to generalize to other schools. -Cross-sectional: participants of different ages studied at the same time. -advantages: more efficient bc less time and consider results sooner. no selective attrition, practice effects. -disadvantages: cannot examine individuals trends. cohort effects -Sequential design: groups of different aged participants studied repeatedly at different ages. ( combination of the two) -advantages: longitudinal and corss-sectional comparisons -reveals cohort effects -efficient tracking of age-related changes. -disadvantages: same as longitudinal and cross-sectional, but design helps identify differences. Research rights -children and elderly are vulnerable. - Protection from harm- cant implement treatment that could be harmful. - informed consent. - privacy - knowledge of results - beneficial treatments. Chapter 2- Genetic and environmental foundations. Genetic foundations -chromosomes:store and transmit genetic info. -DNA: double stranded molecule; makes chromosomes. -gene: segment of DNA on chromosome. Mitosis & Meiosis Meiosis -cell division halving number of chromosomes in body cells. -form gametes=sex cells -23 chromosomes. -at conception, sperm and ovum form zygote with 46 chromosomes. -leads to genetic variability. Mitosis -process where DNA duplicates itself -produces new body cells containing the same genetic info. Gametes- sex cells:sperm and ovum. zygote- formed when sperm and ovum unite sex chromosomes- 23rd pair of chromosomes autosomes: Patterns of genetic inheritance -alleles: forms of the same gene on a pair of chromosomes. - appear at eh same place on chromosome. -inherit one from each parent. - can be dominant or recessive. homozygous-inherited alleles are the same. or heterozygous- alleles are differnt. Dominant-Recessive Inheritance - dominant expressed if present - recessive expressed if paired together. - carriers: 1 dominant, 1 recessive. Punnett Square -each B/b represents one allele for eye color. -shows possible interactions and makes predictions. Genotype vs. Phenotype -individuals genetic make-up -directly observable - gene/environment interaction. Phenylketonuria (PKU) -recessive -cannot metabolize phenylalanine -causes severe CNS damage -treat through diet -can achieve average intelligence and live and average life. -picture is 25 % chance of pku Huntingtons disease DOMINANT -CNS degeneration- beginning at 35 years of age. occurs fairly early -as a result, muscular coordination, mental deterioration, personality changes, no treatment, death 10-20 years after onset Sickle Cell Anemia Recessive -red blood cells sickle. -oxygen deprication, pain, swelling, tissue damage. -susceptible to infections. -treat with blood transfusions, painkillers. incomplete dominance: both alleles expressed;results in intermediate trait heterozygous affected at high altitudes/after intense exercise. -africa and malaria. X-linked inheritance -harmful allele is carried on the X chromosome. -more likely to affect males *females protected by 2nd x chromosomes, males arent. X-linked disorders Duchenne muscular dystrophy -x-linked, recessive. only males. -degenerative muscle disease 1 out of every 3,000 -no treatment. -lose muscle tone overtime and loses ability to walk -death often occurs due to respiratory infection/weak heart muscle Hemophilia -x-linked, recessive. -blood fails to clot normally. -severe internal bleeding -treat with blood transfusions, safety precautions. relatively normal life can be leaded later on. Genetic imprinting and Mutation Imprinting -allele is chemically marked, results in activation. -mother or father -often temporary in transmission. Mutation -sudden permanent change in DNA segment -germline:gametes, passed to next gen. -somatic: body cells, any time in life. Imprinted Disorders Prader-willi Syndrome -imprinted -genetic cuase, no family history. -mental retardation, obesity, low levels of sex hormones. -treat through diet, hormone replacement Fragile X sydnrome -imprinted, X-linked -affect 1/4000 males and 1/6000 females -most common cause of inherited mental retardation. Chromosomal abnormalities -most from mistakes during meiosis -chromosome pair not separated/part falls off Related disorders. Down Syndrome -chromosomal disorder -failure of 21st pair to separate during meiosis -mental retardation, slow motor develeopment, reduced brain size. -maternal age XYY syndrome -male inherits extra y chromosome -largely asymptomatic -average intelligence -normal testosterone and sex development Turner Syndrome -females with no 2nd sex chromosome -thryroid and heart abnormalities -sterility -impaired spatial intelligence -hormone therapy Polygenic Inheritance -many genes determine characteristic -complex, much unknown. Chapter 3 The period of the zygote Blastocyst:days 4-7 -embryonic disk: inner cells, become the organism. -trophoblast: outer cells, protective covering Implantation: days 7-9, the blastocyst burrows into the uterine lining Placenta and Umbilical Cord Chorion -forms after 2 weeks -protective membrane that surrounds the amnion Placenta -allows food and oxygen to enter and waste products to be carried away. -prevents mothers and babies blood from mixing Umbilical Cord -delivers blood to and removes waste from developing organism The period of the Embryo Third week 3 layers of cells form: -Ectoderm:becomes nervous system and skin -neural tube -mesoderm: muscles skeleton, cirvuulatory sytstem -endoderm: digestive system, lungs, urinary tract, glands The fetus: 3rd month, 1st trimester -Organize & connect -organs, muscles, NS -New motor movements -finishing touches -fingernails, toenails, tooth buds, eyelids -sex is evident by 12th week The fetus: second trimesters -Mother can feel movement (17-20 weeks) -Fetus develops vernix- protects skin from chapping in amniotic fluid and lanugo:white, down hair covering body. - advances in brain growth. -most neurons have formed -glial cells (support) are being formed - new behaviors. fetus still too young to survive child birth The third trimester Age of viability: 22-26 weeks- age that they can survive to be born - baby can first survive. Cerebral cortex enlarges and grooves appear. Fetus spends more time awake -Hea
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