"I hate advertising"
•Criticism of advertising and PR: Sut Jhally
• Destructive actions of capitalism
• Advertising is main voice of capitalist threat
• Advertising is major obstacle of survival of species
• What is our society? There is no such thing as a society, just individuals
and their families acting on their own. Which is how advertising speaks to us -
individually, instead of bigger, social issues. Speaks to selfish, individual
• Does not tells story of the future: MAY talk about tomorrow but does not
encourage us to look further. Only speaks in the "now."
• Advertising is something you feel, not something that makes you think
• Sexuality is predominate in advertising.
• Also uses other emotions: nightmares (embarrassments)
• People are not so much criticizing advertising and PR, but instead capitalism
o creative decisions
•Not advertiser's control
o Society (Does advertising influence society or does society influence advertising)
o Historically: John Kenneth Galbraith said "advertising seduced societies into
wasteful materialism and created monopolies"
o TODAY: Adv stimulates the economy
• by providing direct funding to media
• advertising people and by creating demand for good
• services and promotes competition
• Lowers cost of providing info to consumers
Traditional Economic Theory: The "Rational" Consumer:
• Motivated by rational self interest
• Utility theory of consumer Behavior
Rationally acquire the greatest satisfaction (utility) and to avoid
• Law of supply and demand
Purchase more when pricing goes lower, less when price goes up.
• Hard to determine "rational" because of emotional/psychological
How rational is your decision to buy your favorite brand of
o How Economists debate advertising today • Which products to buy- information
• Adv is the most cost effective means of promotion
• Lowers cost of production by increasing total demand for
• Price advertising: here's the brand available at this price.
• Price of products
Toys: advertising reduced the price of toys for kids. - Steiner
Eyeglasses: Compared markets who did and didn’t have
advertising. Price of glasses were lower for those with. -Benham
Prescription Drugs: Prices were lower with advertising - Cody
Beer: No difference in prices with or without advertising. - Wilcox.
Why? Beer is cheaper than eyeglasses and prescription drugs.
• Advertising increases sensitivity to price
Lowest priced items preferred
• Don't inspire confidence.
o Advertising and Economic Climates
• Economic factors limit aggregate purchases
• In a bad economy, ad budgets cut
Expense, not really an investment
• Easier to cut advertising, rather than employees
• Why cut the budget?
Sales will fall!
Maybe because: it increases advertising when competitors are
cutting theirs to create***
o Advertising promotes competition and lowers the cost of providing information to
consumers and distributing products.
o Today **** (towards the end)
• Social Context
o Cultural relativism: each society should be judges by its own values
o Questions lead us back to ethics
• Should US advertise cigarettes in Africa and China?
• Should US advertisers be held to American standards or host country?
o Criticism of Advertising and PR (What is being criticized?)
• Products advertised/promoted (coke, cigarettes)
• Process of advertising/PR (mobile ads, annoying ads)
• Content of advertising/PR (Shouldn't use sex!)
o Seven sins of advertising:
• Advertising is too intrusive
70% of consumers feel technology makes advertising too intrusive
Mobile phone ads
Ads before movies
Talks of things that shouldn't be discussed (laxatives)
• It supports communication media that we enjoy (games
online, annoying blimp)
• Commercial TV not "free" • A music CD with the same advertising revenue as a
newspaper would cost $2.oo and a movie only $.75
• Advertising invades privacy
40% of people felt privacy rights were being protected.
Appears in places it shouldn't (restrooms)
• Invents desire to buy in adults and children
Advertising makes products more important than family or religion
Can advertising invent "desire?"
• NO. (Wilcox says) It may excite tho