GEO 303 Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Noble Gas, Atomic Mass, Unified Atomic Mass Unit
Quick chemistry review: each type of matter consists of a different kind of atom, elements composed of identical atoms, atom: smallest unit of matter. Nucleus: dense clump of subatomic particles at center of atom. Proton: +1 electrical charge, 1 atomic mass (amu) Neutron: neutral, 1 amu- determines what kind of atom you have. Electron: orbits nucleus, negligible mass, negative electrical charge (-1) Atomic number: # of protons in nucleus. Isotopes: atoms of element with different numbers of neutrons. Ion: electrically charged particle that has gained or lost electrons: periodic table: elements in order of atomic number (# of protons) Columns: groups, # of electrons in outer shell (valence: rock forming minerals. Minerals form by crystallization: growth of a solid from a gas or liquid. 1000s of minerals, but only 30 common ones. Of these, only o is an anion: chemical bonds in minerals: chemical bonding is the process by which atoms combine.