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Class Notes for Geological Sciences at University of Texas at Austin

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GEO 303 Lecture Notes - Lecture 10: Solar Wind, Geology Of The Moon, Radiometric Dating
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Cosmic Beginnings Cosmic Beginnings Age of the Earth Formation of the universe Formation of galaxies and solar systems Solar disk The planets...

Geological Sciences
GEO 303
T Shanahan
GEO 303 Lecture Notes - Lecture 11: Shield Volcano, Eruption Column, Mafic
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Lecture 11: Plate Tectonics, Magnetic Fields, and Volcanism How do one look into a planet? Seismic waves P waves will pass through both a solid & a liquid Velocity increases as ...

Geological Sciences
GEO 303
T Shanahan
GEO 303 Lecture Notes - Lecture 7: Radiogenic Nuclide, Critical Role, Absolute Dating
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Lectures 7, 8, 9, & 10: Meteors, Craters, Mars, and Mercury Zodiacal Light Asteroid collisions & outgassing comets constantly produce dust in the SS The interplanetary dust cloud reflects sunlight, making it...

Geological Sciences
GEO 303
T Shanahan
GEO 303 Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: Eucrite, Comet Nucleus, Near-Earth Object
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Lectures 4, 5, & 6: Outer Planets, Asteroids, and Comets Outer Planets Rocky cores several Earth masses in size Dense atms of H & He, similar to Sun, but enriched in heavier gases relative to Sun ...

Geological Sciences
GEO 303
T Shanahan
GEO 303 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Molecular Cloud, Circumstellar Habitable Zone, Outer Core
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Lectures 1, 2, & 3: The Inner and Outer SS The Inner SS The Sun: 99.85% of SSs mass; 92% H, 8% He; source of solar wind & space weather; powered by nuclear fusion (heat H atoms fuse together to form He) in...

Geological Sciences
GEO 303
T Shanahan
GEO 303 Lecture Notes - Lecture 37: Cambrian Explosion, Chlorophyll, Eukaryote
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Lectures 37 & 38: Primitive Life in Different Environments Life on Earth Has existed since at least 3.5Ga, & possibly longer Cyanobacteria have been around since at least 2.7Ga Indicates that life arose...

Geological Sciences
GEO 303
T Shanahan
GEO 303 Lecture Notes - Lecture 36: Red Dwarf, Gliese 581, Exoplanet
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Lecture 36: Hot Jupiters, Kepler Mission, and Gliese 581 Looking for planets Doppler method: 1 to detect extra-solar planets Involves measuring the wobble of a star produced by the gravitational pull of a la...

Geological Sciences
GEO 303
T Shanahan
GEO 303 Lecture 35: Lecture 35: Neptune’s Moons and Pluto
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Lecture 35: Neptunes Moons and Pluto Neptunes moons Triton: a captured KBO At least 12 others (besides Triton) They are all tiny in comparison, totalling <1 of Tritons mass Uranus, Saturn, Jupiter all have several large m...

Geological Sciences
GEO 303
T Shanahan
GEO 303 Lecture 34: Lecture 34: Enceladus, Uranus, & Neptune
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Lecture 34: Enceladus, Uranus, Neptune Enceladus The surface has numerous grooves ridges, but relatively few impact craters The Cassini spacecraft discovered active cryovolcanism geysers Tidal heating has apparently kep...

Geological Sciences
GEO 303
T Shanahan
GEO 303 Lecture Notes - Lecture 33: Rings Of Saturn, Equatorial Bulge, Natural Experiment
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Lecture 33: Saturns Rings Formation of Saturns rings 1) The rings are an ancient feature (~4.5Ga) resulting from destruction of a planet or moon that entered the Roche Limit around Saturn Saturns m...

Geological Sciences
GEO 303
T Shanahan
GEO 303 Lecture Notes - Lecture 31: Sulfur Dioxide, Gas Torus, Galilean Moons
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Lectures 31 & 32: Ganymede, Europa, and lo Ganymede The only moon in the Solar System known to possess its own internally-generated magnetic field Europa might have a weak field as well Its ma...

Geological Sciences
GEO 303
T Shanahan
GEO 303 Lecture Notes - Lecture 30: Libration, Galilean Moons, Heliocentrism
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Lecture 30: Galileo, Moons, and Orbital Resonance Galileo Galilei In 1610, he discovered the 4 largest moons of Jupiter using a small telescope He deduced from the apparent movements of the moons that they o...

Geological Sciences
GEO 303
T Shanahan
GEO 303 Lecture Notes - Lecture 29: Ammonium Hydrosulfide, Downwelling, Plutonium
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Lecture 29: Weather Patterns on Jupiter and Saturn Weather On Earth, atmospheric convection is driven by solar radiation Jupiter & Saturn are radiating more energy into space than they receive from the Sun ...

Geological Sciences
GEO 303
T Shanahan
GEO 303 Lecture Notes - Lecture 28: Aurora, Atmospheric Entry, Ammonium Hydrosulfide
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Lecture 28: Jupiter and Saturn Jupiter & Saturn Jupiter is NOT a failed star. It is big, but the minimum mass for nuclear fusion is ~75 times that of Jupiter Both are thought to have a dense core ma...

Geological Sciences
GEO 303
T Shanahan
GEO 303 Lecture Notes - Lecture 26: Little Ice Age, Axial Tilt, Crater Counting
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Lectures 26 & 27: Ice and Climate Ice & climate (Earth) Sea ice: a few meters thick Mountain glaciers: all sizes, all over the place Ice caps, ice sheets: can cover continents, up to several km thick, ...

Geological Sciences
GEO 303
T Shanahan

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