GEO 303 Lecture Notes - Lecture 7: Geode, Breccia, Natural Bridge Caverns

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10 May 2016
School
Course
Geo Minerals Lecture 7:
Next lecture: Ch 9 metamorphic rock
In lab: Igneous rocks ch 6
Sedimentary Rocks:
Definition
Classification
oClastic
oChemical/biochemical
Clastic sediments
oWeathering processes
oLithification
Chemical sedimentary rocks
oEvaporate/precipitate
oBiochemical
Classified by the way they form
oSedimentary rock: form from sediments
Through Bowen’s reaction series, minerals will convert into other minerals
through the discontinuous process
oFurther you are from the temp the crystal formed, the less stable it is
oEx: Quartz is at the end of the spectrum, why lots of beaches with it,
whereas little to none made of olivine
Sedimentary rocks
oFormed by the deposition, compaction, and cementation of sediments
or chemical or biochemical precipitation
oTypically occur at or relativity close to the surface (low pressure and
temperature)
o1. Clastic: made of sediments that come from pre existing rocks that
have been weathered and eroded then glued together (lithified)
o2. Chemical: made from mineral crystals that formed from chemical or
biological precipitation at Earth surface temperatures
oSediments: fragments of rock that have been broken down as result of
weathering
oClassified by their size, angularity (how sharp they are), sorting
How are sediments produced?
oWeathering: chemical/physical breakdown of rock at or near Earth’s
surface
Mechanical weathering: wind, abrasion by flowing water,
pressure change (exfoliation), roots/burrows, frost wedging,
wetting/drying
Frost wedging: water goes into cracks during summer,
freezes during winter, expands, pushes it apart
Chemical weathering: reacting between minerals and water to
form new minerals and/or dissolved ions
Exfoliation: like an onion, comes off in sheets or layers
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