GEOL 102 Lecture Notes - Lecture 9: Carl Linnaeus, Zoology, Botany

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3 Mar 2017
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Geology 102 Lecture 9 Notes
Classification of Life
Carolus Linnaeus
1707-1778
Swedish botanist, zoologist, physician
Father of modern taxonomy
Systema Naturae- foundation of Linnaean taxonomy
Linnaean Taxonomy
Kingdom
Phylum
Class
Order
Family
Genus
Species
However,
This system of classification
But first, some vocabulary
Vocabulary
Taxon (plural=taxa)- a unit of biological diversity, also called a clade
Systematics- The study of biological diversity and its organization
Phylogeny- the evolutionary tree of life
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Document Summary

Taxon (plural=taxa)- a unit of biological diversity, also called a clade. Systematics- the study of biological diversity and its organization. Meant to reflect phylogeny, but based on morphology. Homology- morphology that is shared between groups because it was inherited from a common ancestor. Look at all the patterns of phylogeny suggested by morphology. The one that suggests that smallest number of convergence and reversal events is best. Monophyletic group- an ancestor and all its descendents. Sister taxa- two clades which share a common ancestor. Only monophyletic groups (clades) are natural taxa. The only natural boundaries to a clade are origination and extinction. Phylogenetic systematics base groups on the evolutionary process, not morphology. An ancestor and some, but not all, of its descendents. Cutoff is arbitrary and unnatural, so we avoid using these names too. A group that is not based on common ancestry. A mistake, so we definitely using these names.

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