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Lecture 19

HISA 3003 Lecture Notes - Lecture 19: Operation Blue Star, Pesticide, Democratic Socialism

History-South Asian History
Course Code
HISA 3003
Nabaparna Ghosh

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Tuesday, April 19, 2016
Post-Colonial India
HISA 3003!
-Main Debates
I. Can the postcolonial nation in India bring together all citizens as one community?!
II. What is the meaning of development in postcolonial India? !
-Jawaharlal Nehru (1889 - 1964)
Favored by Mahatma Gandhi!
Studied in Cambridge abroad as a lawyer !
Supported Gandhi for the Quit India movement – strong relationships with Gandhi!
-Almost like Gandhi’s Son!
Favored over Jinah as the first PM of India!
Although he was close to Gandhi, many idealogical dierences in how to construct the
nation going forward!
-Gandhi: villages = heart of India!
Always spoke that India was an agrarian country where development of villages was
necessary !
-Nehru: Villages were hubs of backwardness !
Focus should be on cities !
Urbanization !
Faith in technology !
Numerous colleges embedded in science and technology!
Also propagated many agrarian reforms by:!
-Attacking the rural elites by attacking the amount of land they could help!
-Diversified crop production by importing seeds from abroad (Green Revolution) !
-Nehru’s Government
Foreign Policy = Non-allignment
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Tuesday, April 19, 2016
-Hence, more friendly towards Russia than USA !
However, he still had no wish to align himself with any of the nations involved in Cold
At home, Democratic socialist –!leading to “License Raj”
-Democratic Socialist?!
Encourages practice of democracy in the political sphere while propagating socialism
in the economic sphere !
Centralization of property ownership!
-Allowed some forms of property and cooperative ownership!
-He believed, however, that people should hold permits, licenses to people who
wanted to hold property –$Resulted in period of “License Raj”!
Rule of licenses!
Private investors who wanted to open new businesses or expand – they had to
receive these permits from Government !
-Lots of bureaucracy = Dicult and cumbersome to get a license !
Refuses to liberalize economy
-He believed in developing the internal economy and Indian businesses before ever
opening up to international/foreign investment !
-Wanted to promote Indian industry !
-The Vamp, 1950 onwards
The purpose of having this character “The Vamp” as a foreign-named, Indian, seductive,
smoking, drinking woman = to show citizens the negative externalities of foreign
involvement !
Having foreign involvement –$would corrupt Indian society, economy, social sphere !
-Chandigarh, 1962
Nehru created this city, with the help of French architects, so no trace of tradition would
be visible in this city !
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