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Lecture 23

PSYC 2150 Lecture 23: Lecture 23 Reasoning

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PSYC 2150
Dan Willingham

4/20/17 Lecture 22 Notes Reasoning • Refers to problems in which you are asked to draw a conclusion or evaluate a suggested conclusion • Overview o People don’t reason via formal logical rules (syllogisms, which in reality isn’t effective) o People don’t use these rules when they are embedded in more normal problems: Conditional syllogisms ▪ Theories: pragmatic reasoning, schemas, evolutionary theory o Inductive reasoning – analogy ▪ Retrieval of source is usually the problem; mapping and extension are usually easy • Are people logical? o There are rules, even if we aren’t aware of them o If logic is formalizing rules of thought, errors are the result of carelessness/ misleading • Syllogism o 2 premises and 1 conclusion o Ex. o Truth value of premises don’t matter ( even if you know the premises aren’t true, the conclusion is justified through the premises therefore we assume them to be true) o o Performance isn’t great when it comes to syllogisms; 50% correctness rate when asked if certain statements based off of premises were valid or not o Maybe the problem is that these problems are posed as logic problems • Conditional Syllogisms o Ex. If p is true, then q is true; p is true; therefore, q is true o o Case-based reasoning ▪ We are good at scenarios with which we are familiar. We simply remember what worked before ▪ BUT … familiarity isn’t what helps people solve these prob
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