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Lecture 17

HIST 3010 Lecture 17: Notes 02.02.17

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HIST 3010

02/02/2017 DIANA E. H. RUSSELL, “PORNOGRAPHY AND RAPE” IN FEMINISM AND PORNOGRAPHY DONNA M. HUGHES, “THE USE OF NEW COMMUNICATIONS AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE SEXUAL EXPLOITATION OF WOMEN AND CHILDREN” Diana E. H. Russell, “Pornography and Rape” in Feminism and Pornography I. Introduction a. Defining Porn i. Anti-porn feminists approve of erotica, not porn ii. Porn: material that combines sex and/or the exposure of genitals with abuse or degradation in a manner that appears to endorse, condone, or encourage such behavior iii. Erotica: sexually suggestive or arousing material that is free of sexism, racism, and homophobia and is respectful of all human beings and animals portrayed iv. Porn includes: sexually arousing images with women naked while men are clothed, pics with exposed women’s genitals but not men’s, pics with men as dominant v. Racism pervades porn, present in narrow concept of beauty (white women) vi. What is objectionable about porn is its abusive portrayal of women, not necessarily its explicitness vii. Contradicts MacKinnon and Dworkin because they fail to distinguish that which dehumanizes women for educational purposes vs. for sexual gratification viii. Sexual objectification of women not defined to porn b. Inconsistencies in Definitions i. People can’t differentiate between erotica and porn ii. Can’t agree on what rape is iii. Some think because it can’t be defined, it shouldn’t be considered a crime, but we still condemn killing if we can’t define it as murder or manslaughter iv. Both MacKinnon, Dworkin, and Russell point out that child porn has been outlawed even though def of porn isn’t agreed on c. Abuse of Women in the Making of Porn i. Women are tortured and abused to be videotaped and photographed for profit ii. Russell considers some content porn even though it isn’t made for porn, but because it ties together degrading sexism and bondage iii. Rape is illegal, but rape on screen is protected as free speech II. Porn and Rape: A Causal Model a. Males’ Propensity to Rape i. High percentage of male college students said they would rape or emulate rape actions if they could get away with it ii. Men who feel more inclined to rape or more aroused by images of rape than of consensual sex iii. About 50% of men wanted to rape a woman iv. Some men think that their lack of desire to rape is odd b. The Content of Porn i. Don Smith found that in “adults only” paperbacks there were: increasing number of rape scenes, focus was on fear that turned into sexual passion, 97% of victims orgasmed, 75% orgasmed more than once ii. Canadian porn has less violence iii. Malamuth finds (1986): female is usually victim, victims often shown to secretly desire and like abuse, dangerous subliminal conditioning to associate violence with sexual pleasure c. A Theory About the Causative Role of Porn i. Four things have to happen for child sexual abuse to happen: person has to desire to abuse child, person’s social inhibitions against it must be undermined, person’s internal inhibitions against it must be undermined, and person has to undermine their victim’s capacity to resist ii. Her theory is that: iii. Porn predisposes some men to want to rape women and intensifies the predisposition in other men already predisposed iv. Undermines some men’s internal inhibitions v. Undermines some men’s social inhibitions vi. Decreases victim’s ability to avoid or resist rape by encouraging them to get into high rape-risk situations d. The Meaning of ‘Cause’ i. Multiple causation is more relevant because porn doesn’t cause rape, but it encourages it ii. Encourages men to lower inhibitions about rape e. The Role of Porn in Predisposing Some Males to Want to Rape i. Porn can induce desire to rape that didn’t exist before ii. 1. It pairs sexually arousing and gratifying stimuli with rape (even masturbating after watching rape films furthers the conditioning) iii. 2. It increases males’ self-generated rape fantasies as men who read or watched rape created more violent fantasies that got them more aroused iv. The younger the viewer, the worse the effects v. Juvenile boys claim to learn from porn more than juvenile girls vi. 3. It sexualizes dominance and submission, males who watched violent and nonviolent dehumanizing videos were more likely to rape vii. 4. It creates appetite for increasingly stronger material f. The Role of Porn in Undermining Some Males’ Internal Inhibitions Against Acting Out the Desire to Rape i. 1. Objectifies women, makes it easier to rape them ii. 2. Rape myths; porn makes men believe that women enjoy rape or that the way they dress, act, look, etc. makes it okay to rape them; also makes it seem as if women who don’t want to be raped can easily resist it iii. 3. Acceptance of interpersonal violence, men who are taught that violence against women is okay are more likely to do it themselves iv. Often sexual violence is labeled as more sexual than violent, that sexual violence is normal, places more blame on victim, connects sexual aggression to pleasure, reduces negative emotional reactions to sexual violence v. 4. Trivializes rape vi. 5. Sex-callous attitudes vii. 6. Acceptance of male dominance in intimate relationships viii. 7. Desensitizing males to rape (males who were not violent watched movies with violent rape in them and over period of time, males said that the movies were less disturbing and violent and when they viewed an actual rape, placed less worth on the woman, blamed her more, and did not think as much of the violence) g. The Role of Porn in Undermining Some Males’ Social Inhibitions Against Acting Out Their Desire to Rape i. 1. Diminishing fear of social sanctions ii. 2. Diminishing fear of disapproval by peers h. The Role of Porn in Undermining Potential Victims’ Abilities to Avoid or Resist Rape i. 1. Encourages females to get into high rape-risk situations by telling them how to act and making them feel obligated to be sexually available ii. 2. Porn industry requires female participation, women are raped to make these films i. Further Empirical Findings of the Causative Role of Porn in Rape i. Basically some people say college males shouldn’t be used to rep the male population ii. More numbers that show men wanna rape, especially after watching violent porn (with rape) DONNA M. HUGHES, “THE USE OF NEW
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