Please I need help answering those questions i always lose bunch of points i'm not doing it correctly.

Use information from Nature Reviews Microbiology to answer the following question.What is the role of EF-G and EF4 in protein synthesis? Under what circumstances does EF4 participate in translation and what is its role?

from this reading The Highly Conserved LepA Is a Ribosomal Elongation Factor that Back-Translocates the Ribosome Qin Y,Polacek N, Vesper O, Staub E, Einfeldt E, Wilson D.N, and Nierhaus N.H. Cell 127: 721-733 (2006).

Q2. In which species is Lep A found and in which ones is it absent? Is the result expected based on your knowledge of the endosimbiosis theory?


3a What is the percentage of identity between LepA and its ortholog genes?

3b. (5pts) Indicate what domains are conserved between Ecoli EFG and LepA, and which ones are not.

3c. What do grey and black boxes in the sequence alignment indicate?

Q4. Analysis of in vivo experiments shown in Figure 3. Only analyze graph on the left side of the figure.

4a. What is the difference between the bacteria whose growth are shown by the blue and the green curves? What can be concluded about the effect of EFG on bacterial growth?

4b. Which protein is expressed by bacteria whose growth is shown by the yellow curve? Does the expression of this protein affect bacterial growth? Compare the yellow and blue curves. How can this result be explained?

4c. Explain why the addition of IPTG results in lower bacterial growth. Compare the yellow and red curves?

4d. Why is the green curve an important control of the experiment? The green curve.

The next questions are based on the reading of the article Elongation factor 4 (EF4/LepA) accelerates protein synthesis at increased Mg2+ concentrations.

Elongation factor 4 (EF4/LepA) accelerates protein synthesis at increased Mg2+ concentrations Pech M, Karim Z, Yamamoto H, Kitakawa H, Qin Y, and Nierhaus K. PNAS 108: 3199-3203(2011)

Studies done in E. coli using a knockout mutant of the lepA gene (ΔlepA , lepA gene has been deleted) did not show any phenotype when grown in rich LB medium. This result was unexpected due to the high level of conservation of EF-4 among species.

Q5. Equal amounts of wild type and mutant cells (lacking the lepA gene) were mixed and co-cultured for 24h. The population distribution was determined every 4 hours. Figure 1 indicates changes in the % of mutant cells over several generations.

Q5a. What is the question that researchers addressed in the experiments shown in Figure 1?

Q5b. Which curve represents the control of the experiment? Do the two strains grow at similar rate? How do you know?

Q5c. Do high salt concentration and/or low temperature have any effect on the growth of mutant cells?

Q5d. What can you conclude about the role of LepA on bacteria growth? When is this protein important?


6a. (6pts) Where in the cell is EF4 located? Did you expect that this would be the EF4 location? Why or why not?

What is the question that the researchers want to address in the experiment shown in Figure 2?

6c. Analyze the green and red bars graph shown in Figure 2. What technique was used to detect EF4? Is there any change in EF4 localization?

Q7. Summarize the main points of the model shown in Figure 4

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Nelly Stracke
Nelly StrackeLv2
30 Sep 2019

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