Study Guides (238,633)
Australia (3,439)
Biology (9)
BIO1011 (2)
Various (2)

BIO1011: Exam revision notes for entire semester

8 Pages
Unlock Document


Inquiring About the World of Life o Evolution is the process of change that has changed life on Earth from the beginning to the variety of organisms today. Evolution o Organisms living today have been modified from their common ancestors. Emergent properties o Emergent properties are due to the arrangement and interactions of parts as complexity increases. o Eg. When a severe brain injury occurs, even though all the brain parts are present, the brain may not function like before. o Our thoughts and memories are emergent properties of a complex network of nerve cells. The Power and Limitations of Reductionism o Breaking apart an organism disables it from functioning, however we are unable to understand an organism or cell if we don’t take it apart. o Reductionism is reducing complex systems to simpler components so that it is easier to study. Systems Biology o A system is the combination of components that function together. o Systems Biology is to construct a model for the dynamic behaviour of whole biological systems. The right model allows scientists to predict how a change in one or more variable can affect the component or the entire system. Ecosystem dynamics o The ecosystem involves two processes. o The first is the cycling of nutrients. o The second is the one-way flow of energy from sunlight to producers to consumers. o Producers are plants that use light energy to make sugar. o Consumers are animals that eat the producers and other consumers. Energy conversion o The exchange of energy between an organism and its surroundings requires a form of energy converting into another. o A plant absorbs light energy and converts it to chemical energy stored in sugar molecules. o Animal’s muscle cells uses sugar for power movements, they convert chemical energy to kinetic energy. o In all these energy conversions, some of the energy is converted to thermal energy which gives off heat to the surrounding. Cells o Cells are an organism’s basic units of structure and function. o The division of cells to form new cells is for reproduction, growth and repair of multicellular organisms. o All cells share certain characteristics. o Every cell is surrounded by a membrane that controls the passage of materials between the cell and its surroundings. o Every cell uses DNA as its genetic information. o Microorganisms such as Bacteria and Archaea are prokaryotic cells. o Plants and animals are Eukaryotic cells. o An eukaryotic cell is split by internal membranes into different membrane-closed organelles o The nucleus is the largest organelle in most eukaryotic cells. o The other organelles are located in the cytoplasm which is the place between the nucleus and outer membrane of the cell. o Prokaryotic cells are smaller and simpler compared to eukaryotic cells. o The DNA is not separated from the rest of the cell by being surrounded in a membrane-bounded nucleus. DNA o DNA – deoxyribose nucleic acid o DNA is the substance of genes which is transferred from parents to offspring. o Chromosomes have most of the cell’s genetic material, it’s DNA. o Each chromosome has one long DNA molecule with lots of genes arranged along its length. o The DNA of chromosomes replicates as a cell begins to divide, and each of the two cellular offspring inherits a complete set of genes. o The molecular structure of DNA enables it to store information. o Each DNA molecule is made up of two long chains arranged in a double helix. o Nucleotide is the block of molecules that form building blocks of DNA/RNA when linked together. o DNA of genes controls protein production indirectly and uses RNA as a intermediary (acting between). o The sequence along a gene makes a copy (transcribe) into RNA which is then changed (translate) into a specific protein with a unique shape and function. o A genome is the entire information of genetic instructions that an organism inherits. Evolution o Five kingdoms: - Plants - Animals - Fungi - Single-celled eukaryotic organisms - Prokaryotes o Domain bacteria and domain Archaea are prokaryotic cells. o Prokaryotic cells are single-celled and microscopic. o Plants make their own sugars and other foods by photosynthesis. o Fungi are decomposers – they break down dead organisms and organic wastes and get their nutrients from these. o Animals get food by eating and digesting other organisms. Charles Darwin and the Theory of Natural Selection o Darwin said that existing species arose from a succession (thing after another in order) of ancestors – descent with modification o His second point was to suggest a mechanism (structure) for descent with modification – evolutionary mechanism natural selection. o Individuals in a population can have different traits which is able to be passed on from the parents to the offspring. o A population can produce more offspring than can produce offspring on their own. Viruses o Injecting a virus’s DNA into a cell enables the virus to take over the bacterium and produce many new viruses. o Viruses cannot reproduce or carry out metabolic activities outside the host cell. o A virus consists of a nucleic acid surrounded by a protein coat. o A virus’s genome consists of double-stranded DNA, single-stranded DNA, double-stranded RNA single-stranded RNA, depending on the type of virus. o A virus is called DNA virus or RNA virus depending on the nucleic acid that makes up its genome. Capsids and Envelopes o A capsid is the protein shell that surrounds the viral genome. o A capsid can be rod-shaped, polyhedral or a more complex shape, depending on the type of virus. o Capsomeres are the protein subunits that make up capsids. o Some viruses have different structures that help them infect the host cell. o Eg. A membranous envelope surrounds the capsids of influenza viruses and many other viruses found in animals. o The viral envelopes obtained from the membranes of the host cell contain host cell phospholipids and membrane proteins. They also contain proteins and glycoproteins of viral origin. o Bacteriophages are the viruses that infect bacteria. Their capsids have heads that surrounds DNA. Attached to the head is a protein tail with fibres where the bacteriophages attach to a bacterium. Reproduction of viruses o Viruses only reproduce in host cells. o Viruses lack metabolic enzymes and equipment for the making of proteins. o Each type of virus can infect cells of a limited variety of host
More Less

Related notes for BIO1011

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.