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[BIOL 1F25] - Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam (51 pages long!)


Department
Biological Sciences
Course Code
BIOL 1F25
Professor
Gaynor E Spencer
Study Guide
Final

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Brock U
BIOL 1F25
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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Bio 1F25 Exam Review
The Nervous System
Body’s main control system: receives input from various sources and controls body’s
physical movements, maintains homeostasis, and initiates our higher thought
processes
Unit of function is a neuron generates and transmits impulses called action potentials
Neurons communicate with outer chemicals via the release of chemical substances
called neurotransmitters
Brain has capacity for long-term memory
Psychoactive drugs act by altering communication between neurons in the brain by
influencing the concentrations or actions of neurotransmitters
What does the Nervous System do?
Senses info from environment (brain ignores large % of info received = learned
memory)
Imports info
Analyses / stores info
Generates behavioural responses
Two Parts of Nervous System
1. Central Nervous System (CNS): brain and spinal cord
2. Peripheral Nervous System (PNS): nerve fibres that transmit signals between the
CNS and organs in other parts of the body
PNS carries info to brain, and motor division of PNS carries info from CNS to other
parts of body
Motor division:
Somatic division: control skeletal muscles
Automatic division: control smooth muscles, cardiac muscles, and glands
Sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions
Work antagonistically to subconsciously maintain homeostasis
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Neurons
Classification
Shape
Location or location in circuits (primary, secondary,…)
Function
Sensory neuron: respond to certain types of stimuli and provide input to the CNS
Interneurons: transmit impulses between components of CNS (anything not a
motor or sensory neuron)
Motor neuron: transmit impulses away from CNS to all tissues and organs of the
body
Similarities to other cells
Plasma membrane
Cytoplasm
Organelles (mitochondria)
Protein synthesizing machinery (RER)
Nucleus (genetic info)
Cell body
Main body of a neuron, receives info from dendrites… if enough stimulation, it is
passed on to the axon
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