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HIST 1F95 Final: Historial Terms

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Gregor Kranjc

WINTER EXAM HISTORY TERMS HIST 1F95 Nato The cold war had started and the Soviet Union was capturing surrounding countries first to help protect them from any invasion. The people in the captured were forced to join the soviet military. As the soviet union increased greatly in numbers many other countries feared what would happen. Also with this there was the ‘Space Race’ happening. In response to this the North American Treaty Organization (NATO) was formed between the territories of North America ad Europe. It was to defend each other incase the Soviet Union attacked. Eisenhower was appointed supreme commander giving US the advantage. Warsaw Pact - Made in response to and similar to NATO - Militaries of communist states link up with the Soviet Union to defend against any western attacks. Hungarian revolution - Largest uprising that occurred within the Soviet Union - Workers and students were upset with the economy and lack of political freedoms - They wanted to detract itself from the USSR and become a neutral country, with protection under the UN - Khrushchev sent in tans and suppressed them to keep them under control United Fruit company - Largest U.S. presence - Owned large plantations, but paid very little to workers - The Cold War in Latin America Fidel Castro - Cuban communist revolutionary and politician - Leader of Cuba from 1959 - 2008 - Led the 26th of July Movement with Che Guevara - Managed to overthrow the Bastista regime (limited rents, raised ages, improved education, medical care) - Led to collision course with the United States (Bay of Pigs invasion by anti-casta Cubans who lived in the U.S. got together in Guatemala and launched invasion) - USSR placed missiles in Cuba (Cuban missile Crisis) Cuban Missile Crisis - October 1962 - USSR placed missiles in Cuba (essentially in the backyard of the U.S.) - Khrushchev believed that the West would not rise to the challenge (attacking Cuba because of the placement of the missiles) - U.S. spy plans see the missiles, order them out or threatens to destroy them / attack Cuba (ultimatum was sent to Khrushchev WINTER EXAM HISTORY TERMS HIST 1F95 - Khrushchev pulls out because the U.S. promise not to invade Cuba as long as the missiles are taken out of Cuba Front de Liberation Nationale (FLN) 
 - Socialist political party in Algeria - Created by new generation of young Algerians who ere tired of slow reform - Launched war of independence against the French - Fought against the French, European colonizers and Algerians who did not side with them Suez Canal Crisis - An artificial sea level waterway in Egypt, connecting the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea - Western shareholders owned most of the canal (Berlin wanted oil, France was annoyed because Nasser was inflaming the FLN in Algeria, Israel wanted it because it was the outlet of Eilat) - Nasser reacted to the American and British decision to cut funding on the Aswan Dam by declaring martial law in the canal zone seizing control of the Suez Canal Company - The plan was put in place for Israel to attack Egypt, while Britain and France were going to act as peacekeepers (The plan didn’t work and Nasser came out a winer) - The U.S. were mad that they were not involved in the plan Six day war - 1967 (fight between Israel, Egypt, Syria and Jordan) - Israel in 1967 preemptively launch an invasion on surrounding Arab states (Israel flourished and took the West Bank + Gaza) - The war began on June 5 with Israel launching surprise bombing raids against Egyptian airfields after a period of high tension that included an Israeli raid into the Jordanian- controlled West Bank. Israeli initiated aerial clashes over Syrian territory, Syrian artillery attacks against Israeli settlements in the vicinity of the border followed by Israeli response against Syrian positions in the Golan Heights and encroachments of increasing intensity and frequency (initiated by Israel) into the demilitarized zones along the Syrian border and culminating in Egypt blocking the Straits of Tiran and ordering of the evacuation from the Sinai Peninsula of the U.N. buffer force. - Within six days, Israel gad wi a decisive land war. Israeli forces had taken control of the Gaza Strip and the Sinai Peninsula from Egypt, the West bank and East Jerusalem from Jordan. And the Golan Heights from Syria - The UN refused to recognize the land captured by Israel because they were conquered through aggression Brown vs. Board Of Education Topeka - 1954 (A landmark united states supreme court case in which the court declared state laws establishing separate public schools for black and white students unconstitutional - Overturned the decision made in 1986 (Plessy vs. Ferguson) Homer Plessy got arrested for sitting in the white section go the bus (Seperate, but equal; they aren’t disallowing African Americans from going on the bus, but just separating them) WINTER EXAM HISTORY TERMS HIST 1F95 Civil Rights Act - A landmark piece of legislation in the united states that outlawed major forms of discrimination against racial, ethnic, national and religious minorities and women - It ended unequal application of voter registration requirements and racial segregation in schools, at the workplace and by facilities that served the general public - Issued by John F Kennedy Stonewall Inn (Stonewall Riots) - Gay rights movement took off in the 1960’s ( they were treated quite brutally - homosexuality was considered a criminal offence) - 1969 the police raided a gay bar and the people at the bar fought back - A series of spontaneous violent demonstrations by members of the gay community against a police raid Malcolm X - A part of the Nation of Islam - Learned how to read while he was in jail - Became an activist and joins nation of Islam (African Americans who accepted the faith of Islam) - Assassinated by the Nation of Islam because he criticized it Viet Cong - Communist group within South Vietnam (began their own uprising through guerrilla warfare) - Americans became more active in South Vietnam because of the threat of communism - LBJ sent in 500 000 American troops to fight against the Viet Cong - Viet Cong lived underground (U.S. troops rarely saw the Viet Cong, but were often killed in their traps) - Viet Cong merged amongst the civilian population, so the U.S. never knew where the enemy was making civilians targets - 1968 Tet offensive was launched by the Viet Cong (managed to take towns and cities) My Lai Massacre - The Vietnam war mass murder of between 347 and 504 unarmed civilians in south vietnam on march 16, 1968 by United States army - Victims : women, children and elderly were raped and killed Tet Offensive - 1968 during Vietnamese new year Viet Cog launched this offensive (Managed to take towns and cities, south Vietnamese were able to push them out, but this proved that when LBJ said that it would ve a short war was a false statement) WINTER EXAM HISTORY TERMS HIST 1F95 - It was a campaign of surprise attacks that were launched against military and civilian command and control enters throughout South Vietnam during a period when no attacks were supposed to take place Cultural Revolution - Mao Zedong (China) attempts to very rapidly change China in a communist sense - “Gang of four” term given to Mao’s four closest collaborators (attempted to regain power for Mao through his cultural revolution - Stood for the ramp up of revolutionary ideological fervour of the masses (turns China into a great chaos, did this by garnering to the impressionable youth) - Convinced Chinese youth that capitalism was still prominent in China, urging these youth to go out in the city and unmask those traitors (targeted intellectuals) - The youth created a huge paramilitary group called the Red Books (intense violent purging of China, many will be tortured / murdered, arrested those who were wealthy) - Communist party officials who lost presence with Mao were put on show trials and were forced to plead guilty to unbelievable accusations and were executed - Mao used this for political purposes and to come to power Tiananmen
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