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Final

LING 1P92 Final: LING PRESENTATION FINAL

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Department
Linguistics
Course
LING 1P92
Professor
Lynn Dempsey
Semester
Fall

Description
LING PRESENTATION: Feeding and Swallowing Disorder Agenda: 1. Go over what feeding and swallowing is. 2. Brainstorm causes in children and adults 3. Talk about assessment and treatment. 4. Social factors and effects. 5. How is feeding and swallowing disorders connect to communication. Discussion: - What is feeding? - What is swallowing? o Complex behaviours involving volitional and reflexive activities of more than 30 nerves and muscles (Matsuo, 2008) - What do you think a feeding and swallowing disorder is? o Impairment to swallow, common in elderly and infants. Activity: Give each person in class, piece of food (cookie, cracker) ask them to pay attention to what is happening when they are eating said food. Give each table 1-2 diagrams of the structures in swallowing to help formulate answers. 1) Oral Prep Phase: what do you think is happening in this phase? What structures are being used? If there is dysphagia in the oral prep phase, what do you think is being affected? How long does this phase take? - Prepares food to be swallowed. Structures used tongue, teeth, lips, cheeks. Substances enter the mouth and are manipulated into a bolus. Saliva helps move the bolus toward back of oral cavity. Time varies depending on substance faster for liquid than solids. 2) Oral Phase: what do you think is happening in this phase? What structures are being used? If there is dysphagia in the oral prep phase, what do you think is being affected? How long does this phase take? - Moves bolus to the back of the oral cavity. Structures used; tongue and cheek muscles (creates pressure to push to pharynx). Completed 1- 1.5 seconds. 3) Pharyngeal Phase: what do you think is happening in this phase? What structures are being used? If there is dysphagia in the oral prep phase, what do you think is being affected? How long does this phase take? - Propels bolus downward through the throat to entrance of esophagus. Structures included are; anterior faucial pillars (sphincters), soft palate and tongue and pharynx. Swallow reflex triggered and soft palate moves towards tongue at propels bolus downwards. - Structures used that assist prevention of food entering airway; soft plate, tongue, vocal folds, epiglottis, larynx. Lasts for 1 second. o Soft palate elevates to form barrier between the pharynx and nasal cavity to prevent from going into the nasal cavity. o Larynx moves forward and higher into the neck to protect airway. o Epiglottis folds downwards to cover the larynx o Vocal cords come together to prevent anything from entering the larynx or airway. 4) Esophageal Phase: what do you think is happening in this phase? What structures are being used? If there is dysphagia in the oral prep phase, what do you think is being affected? How long does this phase take? - Moves bolus through esophagus into stomach. Structures used; sphincters and esophagus and stomach. Passes through upper sphincter, down esophagus, through lower sphincter into stomach. Lasts around 8-20 seconds, age slows down the process. Video (1:30) - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=adJHdrQ4CRM - Pause after each little segment. Ask what is happening during each swallow. Causes in Children and Adults - What are some potential causes of dysphagia in children and adults? - Go around the room and ask each person. - Pick one cause from child and adult and ask how that would affect the individual. o Alzheimer’s disease: they cannot recognize food because the brain is slowly being attacked, difficulty of bolus movement because apraxia, delayed phalangeal contraction to swallow. o Parkinson’s disease: b/w 50%- 92% of people that have Parkinson’s disease have a feeding and swallowing disorder (Logemann, 1994) o Gastric Reflux: Stomach acid, comes up into esophagus and throat and burns while child eats. Child wants to avoid the burning sensation so they may refuse to eat altogether or if it’s a certain food that causes the reflux they may refuse that single food or texture. Causes for children Causes for adults - Damage or Dysfunction to oral- motor system - Alzheimers’ disease - Inappropriate eating rate (fast or slow) - ALS - Low muscle tone - Head and neck cancer treatments - Delayed motor development - Parkinson’s disease - Physical deformities in oral motor area - Traumatic Brain injury (mouth, cleft palate, tongue) - Stroke - Down Syndrome, Cerebral Palsy - Respiratory Problems, cardiopulmonary diseases - Unable to meet caloric/ nutritional needs - Too picky (texture, taste) - Refusal - Gastric reflux - Parental drug abuse and alcohol abuse - Trauma, disease, accidents, illness, developmental disabilities, low birth rate, prematurity CAUSES IN CHILDREN - Not meeting their nutritional needs. Inadequate feeding; too picky, refusal, parental drug abuse, etc. Unsafe feeding; cannot demonstrate suck- swallow- breathe pattern, NICU treatments for low birth weight (tubes) don’t allow them t learn how to swallow normally and meet those progressive milestones. ASSESSMENT IN CHILDREN AND ADULTS - Brainstorm different ways a SLP can assess feeding and swallowing disorders. o Case history, physical evaluations of mechanis
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