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LING 2P99 Study Guide - Comprehensive Final Exam Guide - Vocab (Song), Phoneme, Phonology


Department
Applied Linguistics
Course Code
LING 2P99
Professor
Lynn Dempsey
Study Guide
Final

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LING 2P99

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More than ⅓ children enter school with significant deficiencies in language, early literacy
skills and motivation to learn that put them at risk for long term reading difficulties
Insufficient spoken language
Early oral language skills
Spoken language skills and literacy skills are in a bidirectional relationship
They both influence each other
By time literacy instruction begins, there is already big difference between kids in spoken
language skills
Some kids better at understanding more complex sentences
Differences in oral language skills caused by
○ Genetics
Environment (input)
These environments differ in SES
Higher ses parents
Have more diverse vocab
Longer and more complicated sentences
More language teaching during play
More speech during book reading
SocioEconomicStatus-related differences
Vocabulary
Ses accounts for ⅓ of variance in children's vocab size
Receptive vocab
Ability to understand words
Ask to point to bus and you do, you understand
word bus
Productive vocab
Ability to use words
Point to object and ask what is and you say bus
then you know word bus
SES gap appears early and widens until Kindergarten and then remains
stable
Higher SES kids acquire language more quickly and so the gap
between rich and poor kid vocab widens
During school, rate of vocab growth is similar across ses group
School stablizes rate of growth but cuz poor kids start behind then
stay behind
Hart and risley 1995
Researchers went into family home once a week and recorded
talk
Higher SES kids were exposed to more words, richer vocab, more
complex grammatical structure
In 1 week high SES kids heard 215,00, mid ses 125000 and low
62000
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By 3 years higher ses kids heard 30 million more words than lower
ses kids
By 3 years high ses kids had 1000, poor kids had 500
Syntax
High ses
Greater MLU (more complex sentences)
More frequently use complex sentences than low ses
Better comprehension of complex sentences
Ses related differences in syntax exist for complex sentences but not
simply sentences
Rich and poor kids same for simple sentences
Vasilyeva 2008
Measured mastery of simple syntax (accuracy of word
order and use of obligatory syntactic elements) and
complex syntax (sentences with more than 1 clause)
In simple syntax SES groups were similar
Age and frequency they acquire and use simple
syntax is same
Simple syntax may depend on biological
mechanisms or common environmental
features that all kids of all SES have
In complex syntax, high ses produced complex sentences
earlier and used them more frequently and use more
diversity of types of complex syntax
Complex syntax may depend more on input
characteristics which differ between SES groups
Importance of mastering complex syntax
Poor kids may not master this until later school years which
problem for literacy
Incomplete mastery impedes literacy acquisition and academic
growth
Textbook and test questions contain complex syntax
Requires cognitive resources to decipher sentence
structure which means less resources available for
comprehending message
Hinders acquisition of new knowledge
Prevents kids revealing what they know on test
Cannot express themselves well on test
Parental input
Amount of speech parents provide at home predicts spoken language skills
Parent practices predict spoken language skills- especially vocab
Linguistics features of parental speech linked to spoken language skill including
Vocab sophistication
Length and complexity of utterances
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