Cognitive Science Review for Midterm 1
Frontal Lobes: voluntary behavior
Parietal Lobes: Visual spatial processing, perception, spatial things
Occipital Lobe: Vision
Temporal Lobe: Perception (hearing, vision, smell), understanding language.
Cerebellum: Coordination of voluntary movement (balance, posture, etc)
Brain is the center of the nervous system.
Mind and Brain
Study the BRAIN from third person knowledge.
Study the MIND from first person knowledge
The Mind-Body Problem: The mind (mental states) and the brain (physical states)
are/seem to be different things. How can we explain their interaction?
Dualism: mind and body are two separate substances interacting through pineal gland
Monism: There is only one substance
Idealism: there is only the mind
Physicalism: There is only the brain
Functionalism: the mind is the brain, but the brain is not the only explanation.
Multiple Realizability: In philosophy of mind, it is the view that mental states can arise in
different physical implementation (ex: martian minds, computers, human brains). The
Same function can be produced by different systems.
History of Cognitive Science:
Ancient Greeks: What is knowledge?
Wundt: first psychology lab, practice introspection, “description of consciousness is the
sole aim of experimental psychology” (Wundt).
Behaviourism-Watson: Introspection should be rejected; only experimental laboratory
should be part of psychology. Psychology should only examine relationships between
stimuli and behavioural responses.
Behaviourism-Pavlov: Classical conditioning (learned reflexes).
Behaviourism-Skinner: operant conditioning through rewards and punishments for
Turing: Computing machinery and intelligence
Fathers of Cog Sci: George Miller (memory), Chomsky: language acquisition is beyond
Five Ideas of Cognitive Revolution: 1) Mental world can be grounded in physical world, 2)
mind cannot be blank slate because slates don’t do anything 3) Infinite range of behaviours can be generated by small programs in mind, 4) universal mental mechanisms underlie
superficial variation across cultures, 5) mind is complex
Memory: Diverse set of cognitive capacities by which we retain information and
reconstruct past experiences. Involves remembering.
Human Memory: Sensory memory (less than 1 sec), Working memory (greater than 1 min)
and Long Term Memory (life time).
Explicit Memory: can be accessed verbally
Under Explicit Memory
Long Term Memory: Explicit Memory (conscious) and Implicit (unconscious).
Declarative Memory: Facts, events. Broken up into: Episodic Memory (events,
experiences) and Semantic Memory (facts, concepts).
Implicit Memory: Happen at unconscious level where prior experiences aid in
performance of a task (ie: remembering how to ride a bike).
Under Implicit Memory
Procedural Memory: skills and tasks.
Herman Ebbinghaus: created test where people remember list of words and recite back
after every word. Words at beginning of list are easy to remember (primacy) and so are
words at end (recency). Words in middle are harder.
Perception: organization, identification and interpretation of sensory info in order to make
mental representation through process of transduction which is when sensors in the body
transform signals form the environment into encoded signals. It’s how we understand the
world. (Vision= perception of light, audition= perception of air vibrations, haptics=
perception of physical pressures, Olfaction and Gustation= perception of chemicals like in
taste and smell).
Study of Perception: Stroop Task (ie: red, blue, yellow, green). Recite them.
Study of perception helps understand our subjective world.
Vision: Light enters various parts of the eye. Chemical creates electrical impulse in optic
nerve. Fibers eventually reach back of brain (occipital lobe).
Colour Blindness: occurs when either red or green cones are not working right or
Change Blindness: Psychological phenomenon that occurs when a change in
visual stimulus goes unnoticed by the observer. (ie: identify what’s
Audition: ear sense fluctuation in pressure. Translate these fluctuations into electrical
signals for brain. Brain determines where sound is coming from.
Echolocation: Humans don’t have because we don’t need but whales and bat use. Haptics (Touch): Sense of touch originates in bottom layer of skin called dermis. The nerve
endings found in the dermis send messages to spinal chord and brain.
Gustation (Taste): saliva in mouth helps break down food. Causes receptor cells to send
messages through sensory ner