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Review for Midterm Exam 1

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Cognitive Science
CGSC 1001
Deirdre Kelly

Cognitive Science Review for Midterm 1 The Brain Frontal Lobes: voluntary behavior Parietal Lobes: Visual spatial processing, perception, spatial things Occipital Lobe: Vision Temporal Lobe: Perception (hearing, vision, smell), understanding language. Cerebellum: Coordination of voluntary movement (balance, posture, etc) Brain is the center of the nervous system. Mind and Brain ­Study the BRAIN from third person knowledge. ­Study the MIND from first person knowledge The Mind-Body Problem: The mind (mental states) and the brain (physical states) are/seem to be different things. How can we explain their interaction? Dualism: mind and body are two separate substances interacting through pineal gland (Descartes). Monism: There is only one substance Idealism: there is only the mind Physicalism: There is only the brain Functionalism: the mind is the brain, but the brain is not the only explanation. Multiple Realizability: In philosophy of mind, it is the view that mental states can arise in different physical implementation (ex: martian minds, computers, human brains). The Same function can be produced by different systems. History of Cognitive Science: Ancient Greeks: What is knowledge? Wundt: first psychology lab, practice introspection, “description of consciousness is the sole aim of experimental psychology” (Wundt). Behaviourism-Watson: Introspection should be rejected; only experimental laboratory should be part of psychology. Psychology should only examine relationships between stimuli and behavioural responses. Behaviourism-Pavlov: Classical conditioning (learned reflexes). Behaviourism-Skinner: operant conditioning through rewards and punishments for behavior (consequences). Cognitive Revolution: Turing: Computing machinery and intelligence Fathers of Cog Sci: George Miller (memory), Chomsky: language acquisition is beyond behaviourism. Five Ideas of Cognitive Revolution: 1) Mental world can be grounded in physical world, 2) mind cannot be blank slate because slates don’t do anything 3) Infinite range of behaviours can be generated by small programs in mind, 4) universal mental mechanisms underlie superficial variation across cultures, 5) mind is complex Memory: Diverse set of cognitive capacities by which we retain information and reconstruct past experiences. Involves remembering. Human Memory: Sensory memory (less than 1 sec), Working memory (greater than 1 min) and Long Term Memory (life time). Explicit Memory: can be accessed verbally Under Explicit Memory Long Term Memory: Explicit Memory (conscious) and Implicit (unconscious). Declarative Memory: Facts, events. Broken up into: Episodic Memory (events, experiences) and Semantic Memory (facts, concepts). Implicit Memory: Happen at unconscious level where prior experiences aid in performance of a task (ie: remembering how to ride a bike). Under Implicit Memory Procedural Memory: skills and tasks. Herman Ebbinghaus: created test where people remember list of words and recite back after every word. Words at beginning of list are easy to remember (primacy) and so are words at end (recency). Words in middle are harder. Perception: organization, identification and interpretation of sensory info in order to make mental representation through process of transduction which is when sensors in the body transform signals form the environment into encoded signals. It’s how we understand the world. (Vision= perception of light, audition= perception of air vibrations, haptics= perception of physical pressures, Olfaction and Gustation= perception of chemicals like in taste and smell). Study of Perception: Stroop Task (ie: red, blue, yellow, green). Recite them. Study of perception helps understand our subjective world. Vision: Light enters various parts of the eye. Chemical creates electrical impulse in optic nerve. Fibers eventually reach back of brain (occipital lobe). Colour Blindness: occurs when either red or green cones are not working right or present. Change Blindness: Psychological phenomenon that occurs when a change in visual stimulus goes unnoticed by the observer. (ie: identify what’s different). Audition: ear sense fluctuation in pressure. Translate these fluctuations into electrical signals for brain. Brain determines where sound is coming from. Echolocation: Humans don’t have because we don’t need but whales and bat use. Haptics (Touch): Sense of touch originates in bottom layer of skin called dermis. The nerve endings found in the dermis send messages to spinal chord and brain. Gustation (Taste): saliva in mouth helps break down food. Causes receptor cells to send messages through sensory ner
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