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Communication Research Exam Review.docx
Communication Research Exam Review.docx

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Carleton University
Communication Studies
COMM 2002

Communication Research Exam ReviewLecture 6 Survey ResearchStages of the survey process 1Conceptualizing concept is an abstract element representing classes if phenomena within the field of study variable is measurable concept compromised of a set of attributes indicator specific item employed to measure the variation operationalization process of moving from concepts to variables to indicators2Survey design exploratory descriptive or explanatory research designs Longitudinal vs crosssectional3Instrumentation types of questions include openended and closedended Closedended questions should be exhaustive mutually exclusive and talk about intensity of opinion4Planning5Sampling6TrainingBriefing7Pretesting8SurveyingBias questions written to encourage one response they are loaded questionsResponse set bias rotate statements positive and negative People tend to agree regardless of their opinionArgumentativeness dont argue a position in the preamble objectively give both sidesEncouragement of conditioned responses condition questions that may be sensitiveForcing responses allow for an unsure or refuse optionTypes of surveys1Personal most flexibleexpensive2Mail surveys cheaperlow response rates3Telephone speed of completionbiased sampling4Randomdigit guarantee random selectionvery low response rate5Internet convenientnot randomLecture 78 Univariate AnalysisPercentage change allows us to calculate the relative change in a variable over some period of time The equation is Time 2Time 1Time 1 x 100Eg In 1993 women made up 48 of the population in 2003 made up 51 Therefore PC514848x100 00625 x 100 625Percentage point difference absolute change betweenat Time 1 andat Time 2Eg PPD X2X15148 3 percentage points
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