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Engineering Common Core Courses
ECOR 1010
Glenn Mc Rae

Technology, Society and the Environment Lecture 1= the Drivers of Change (Population, Economy, Social Values, Technology, Environment) • POPULATION • 2005 – 6.4 billion people on the planet • By 2050 --- 8.9 to 10.3 billion on the planet • Population increasing at a rate of ~ 73M/year • During your life-time the global population has increased by 28% • CITIES • >95% of growth in developing countries • In Canada 85% live in cities • By 2050 65% will live in cities • China planning to reverse 80% rural 20% urban with a generation of over 200 >1M cities to be built • MONEY • Gross Domestic Product = the total market value of all the goods and services produced within the borders of a nation during a specified period. • Gross World Product = Measurement of the total income and output of all the countries added up. • During your lifetime almost 70% increase in GDP • International Trade expanding rapidly, 20% increase in GWP • 2004 -- $54.7 trillion, $8.6 per capita…………. 2050 -- >$200 trillion • Poor countries had there best times in the 60s and 70s at 3.3 % growth. • CARS • 2004 production of 44M cars vs. 8M in 1950 • Car Density in China equal to US in 1910-1920’s • Bad Things about Cars • Oven the cities, plus heated pavement for cars • Noise • Acid Rain, Smog, Benzene, Sulphur, Road Salt • AGRICULTURE • Grain harvest exceeds 2 billion tons • World meat production > 250M tons, > 40kg/per person • By 2020 consumption will be 90kg/capita in industrialized nations • Over 70% wild fish stocks in decline or depleted. • MILLENIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS FOR 2015 • Halve the number living in extreme poverty and hunger • Universal Primary Education • Reduce child mortality by two thirds • Combat disease by doubling access to safe drinking water and sanitation 1 • SOCIAL CAPITAL INDICATORS • Social Capital = the collective value of all social networks and the inclinations that arise from these networks to do things for each other • Cohesion – Working together • Including everyone • Responsible and Informed • Transparency = full, accurate, and timely disclosure of information • Corporate social responsibility = company’s obligation to be sensitive to the needs of everyone • TECH TRENDS • Biomimicry = imitation of a natural phenomenon's or environment's efficiency and survival mechanisms in manufacturing processes • Efficiency, Conservation, and Conversion • READING 1 = Economic clout (influence) grows • "Group of 21" - a collection of countries from the developing world led by Brazil that includes South Africa, India and China • Brazil, South Africa and India - got together to fight pharmaceutical companies' high prices for life- saving medicines • After protests by those three countries, the World Trade Organization granted poor nations the right to make and import cheap copycat medicines for "national emergencies." • Trade between poorer countries now makes up only 10 percent of world trade but it is growing rapidly • 40 percent of exports from developing countries go to their peers, and trade between these countries is rising 11 percent a year • BRICs - Brazil, Russia, India and China • The BRICs countries' combined GDP adds up to about one-sixth of that of the G6 economies, by 2025 it should be 1/2 • G6 countries - the United States, Japan, Germany, France, Italy and Britain • 2050 biggest economies will be (in order) China, USA, India, Japan, Brazil, Russia • MEGA CITY LESSONS • The Zabbaleen innovation, for example, arose in large part because of a waste management emergency in Cairo, • Four ingredients for successful implementation • Sustainable innovations depend on direct community participation. (commitment) • Most innovations are driven by a charismatic leader who is tenaciously dedicated to implementing the new idea. • The most powerful innovations are those which span several policy areas and types of innovations • Gender awareness was needed at all levels. (important role of women) • Obstacles  inadequate funds, land, people, supplies….internal community conflict…. Government resistance…… Tech problems 2 Lecture 2 = State of the Environment • PROVISIONING SERVICES = stock of necessary supplies • Food, Water, Fiber, Genetic, Biochemical’s • Water as an example… • Forests and mountain ecosystems provide water for 4 billion people • Water supply unchanged but demand has doubled between 1960 and 2000 • REGULATING SERVICES = attempts to control the environment • Air quality, water, erosion, disease, natural disasters, waste treatment • Natural Hazard as an example…… • People live in dangerous areas, coastal, flood lines, drought, Wildfires increasing • Cost and impact increasing - > 600,000 fatalities, $1.3 Trillion since 1980 from weather alone • Ecosystems degradation – wet lands, mountain forests – reduces natural systems and protection • CULTURAL SERVICES • Spiritual and Religious, Aesthetic, Recreation, Eco-Tourism (Tourism involving travel to areas of natural or ecological interest) • Eco-Tourism as an example…… • Accounts for >20% international travel • Fragile environments have limited capacity and low recovery rate • ECOSYSTEM PROCESSES • Soil Formation • Primary Production : production of biological organic compounds from inorganic materials through photosynthesis or chemosynthesis • Water Cycling = Evaporation, Precipitation, Runoff • Carbon cycling = Breath in O2 breath out CO2, plants do opposite • Nutrient cycling as example … • Food production increased but freshwater services reduced • Large P reservoir on agricultural lands subject to erosion • FINDINGS • More environmental change in last 50 years then any period in human history • Changes have resulted in improved well being but at growing environmental cost • Human activity exceeds capacity of nature • With no change we will need 4 planets to meet peoples needs. • HURRICAN KATRINA • Category 5 hurricane • Deadliest hurricane to hit the United States since Camille in 1969 • Very likely will be the most destructive and costly of all time. • 2005 will see double the number of tropical storms (21) and hurricanes (11) compared to the average • Atlantic Multidecadal Mode = the result of a change in ocean and atmospheric conditions • The Hiroshima Bomb “Little Boy” had little destructive power compared to a hurricane 3 • Rains 2.5 metres of water in a single day ...... bodies of water rise by as much as nine metres and pull the sea inland by 16 kilometres ….. winds up to 300 kilometres per hour • Energy released daily in the form of rain and wind is the equivalent of about 13,000 megatons • Hurricanes are feed by water vapour from tropical surface waters and making the air hotter and more humid. (100 billion litres of liquid water per hour) • MILLENIUM ECOSYSTEM ASSESMENT • Dust storms in the Sahara has also been implicated in respiratory problems as far away as North America and has affected coral reefs in the Caribbean • Dust in the atmosphere adversely impacts cloud formation and rainfall patterns, increasing desertification • Infant mortality rate is double in the dry lands of developing countries compared to the non-dry. • Dry lands occupy more than 40% of the world’s land area and are home to over two billion people • 2,000 cu
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