HIST 2400 A Full set of lecture notes, good luck on exam~

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17 Mar 2012

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HIST 2400 A, History of the United States, Harold Goldman
September 19
Henry VIII (1491-1547):
- Eng. ref. comes from the top down
-marries Catherine of Aragon in 1509
- Henry becomes heir after older brother dies
- needed special permission from the pope to marry sister-in-law
- Henry wanted a divorce 18 years later, he needed a son and she'd only given him one daughter
- Henry wants to annul the marriage, on the grounds that shes his sister in law
- Catherine's nephew is holding the pope hostage, pope already granted the marriage in the first place,
says no
- Lords suggest that Henry become head of the English Church, get the divorce, take control of church
lands and appointments
- Makes the Anglican Church, which must legitimize his new marriage, all subjects must swear new oaths
to him as head of church
- you don't just go to hell now, you go to jail too
- those who didnt take the oath were executed
- the Anglican church is basically catholic, just no pope, king instead
- alot of ppl in eng. werent happy about this
Catherine of Aragon
- daughter of Ferdinand/Isabella
- previously married to Henry's older brother, Arthur
Edward VI
- the son henry sought so much died in 1553
Mary I (Bloody Mary, r. 1553-58)
- daughter of Catherine of A.
- devotely catholic
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- not well liked by much of England
Anne Boleyn
- handmaiden of Catherine of A.
Charles V (r. 1519-1556)
- King of Spain, Catherin's nephew
Philip II of S.
Elizabeth I (r.1558-1603)
- never married, called the virgin queen, tho likely wasnt
- never married; didnt want to pick sides on the continent
- did not tolerate dissent or revolt
- established an effective state security apparatus, successfully hunted catholics
- didnt like the extreme protestants either
- Eliz. was loved for the stability she brought
- turned England into a great power (on the track to at least)
Armada (1588)
- sent by Philip too re-catholicize england
- went it sunk in storm it was taken as a sign that god was protestant
- go to the new world for: converts, escape persecution at home, greed
- driven by desire for the spice markets in asia (muslim middlemen charge alot)
- living space as Europe became increasingly populated
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September 21
- first settlers were very similar to the conquistadores; they were male, adventurous, rough, and often
died early; motivated by profit
- the trip from eng. to am. would generally take at least a month, if not more
- the tough conditions in the crossing (shitty living space, food, and water) led to increased religious
fervour among the survivors
- they arrived at a land of constant threat with no retreat
- if the indians didnt give them food the early settlers likely starved to death
- the settlers were completely dependent on private interests back home, not the govt
these settlers were therefore under enormous pressure from investors back home (who
would be ruined if they didnt get a return)
- Est. 1607 by the Virginia Company
- swept the streets of london for the desperately poor, shipped them off
- only 60/500 survived the first winter
- virginia comp tries to introduce military law, but london is too far away
- instead, they start offering huge acreages (50) of land to ppl who moved (xtra 50 if you brought ppl
with you) headright system
- this helped bring stability to the colony and enfranchised many settlers
the company changed the charter to more democracy
- a house of burgesses was established to govern the day to day
- tobacco farming gives virginia an economic engine; barrels of tobacco became the monetary system of
the colony
- this tobacco craze led to 1/2 indentured servants being worked to death b4 their term of service
- the local indian tribe was the Pamunkey, led by Powhatan
- Powhatan saw the english as just another chess piece in his local empire building
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