Amok: Disorder found in Asia and Africa. Characterized by people who exhibit sudden
outbursts of anger, often will hit or attack random individuals and after doing so will be
exhausted and depressed. and may not have any recollection.
Anorexia Nervosa: It is a culture specific disorder because it is only seen in the west. Relentless
pursuit of thinness, their weight is less than 85% of what it is supposed to be.
Diathesis: refers to a whole host of potential biological causes or genetic predispositions or
Medical Model: proposes that it is useful to think of abnormal behavior as a disease.
^ 3 factors to defining abnormality:
1. Deviant: from the rest of society.
2. Maladaptive (from conventional functioning) whether it is effecting their integration
with society at large. Maladaptive means they can't hold a job, or they can't lead a normal
life. Their disorder is effecting their life style.
3. Personally distressful: For these individuals there is a recognition that there is
something that isn't right.
Diagnosis: involves distinguishing one illness from another.
Etiology: refers to the apparent causation and developmental history of an illness. Causes.
Prognosis: is a forecast about the probable course of an illness. Forecast tells us that the
likelihood of someone recovering from a particular disorder.
DSM: American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental
Comorbidity: the coexistence of two or more disorders.
Epidemiology: the study of the distribution of mental or physical disorders in a population.
Prevalence: refers to the percentage of a population that exhibits a disorder during a specified
time period. Talking about what portion of the population has a particular disorder. It is done
within 12 month spurts. Lifetime prevalence: Chance of getting a psychological disorder in our life time. Life time
prevalence ranges from 33%-50%.
Anxiety Disorder: are a class of disorders marked by feelings of excessive apprehension and
Generalized Anxiety Disorder: marked by a chronic, high level of anxiety that is not
tied to any specific threat. People worry about random things.
Phobic Disorder: marked by persistent and irrational fear of an object or situation that
presents no realistic danger.
Panic disorder and Agoraphobia: characterized by recurrent attacks of overwhelming
anxiety that usually occur suddenly and unexpectedly.
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: marked by persistent, uncontrollable intrusions of
unwanted thoughts (obsessions) and urges to engage in senseless rituals (compulsions).
Post Traumatic Stress Disorder: often elicited by traumatic events, including a rape or
^we all have different life experiences (diathesis) which is why we all don't have phobias.
Agoraphobia: fear of going out to public places.
Concordance rate: indicates the percentage of twin pairs or other pairs of relatives who exhibit
the same disorder. There is a high rate with identical twins.
Dissociative Disorders: are a class of disorders in which people lose contact with portions of
their conscious or memory, resulting in disruptions in their sense of identity.
Dissociative amnesia: is a sudden loss of memory for important personal information
that is too extensive to be due to normal forgetting. They can occur from a single
Dissociative fugue: people lose their memory for their entire lives along with their sense
of personal. These people forget their names, their families, where they live, where they
work. They however remember other things, like how to drive. Amnesia for life.
Dissociative Identity Disorder: involves the coexistence in one person of two or more
largely complete, and usually very different, personalities. This disorder used to be called
multiple personality disorder. It is like a person having two people inside of them and
they don't know about each other.
Mood disorder: are a class of disorders marked by emotional disturbances of varied kinds that
may spill over to disrupt physical, perceptual, social, and thought processes.
Unipolar: experience emotional extremes at just one end of the mood continuum, as they
are only troubled by depression.
Bipolar: experience emotional extremes of both ends, going through periods of
depression and mania (excitement)
Major depressive disorder: people show persistent feelings of sadness and despair and a loss of
interest in previous sources of pleasure. Anhedonia: a diminished ability to experience pleasure
Dysthymic disorder: consists of chronic depression that is insufficient in severity to justify
diagnosis of a major depressive episode.
Bipolar disorder: characterized by the experience of one or more manic episodes as well as
periods of depression.
Cyclothymic disorder: exhibit chronic but relatively mild symptoms of bipolar disturbance.
Seasonal affective disorder: a type of depression that follows a seasonal pattern
Postpartum depression: a type of depression that sometimes occurs after childbirth.
Schizophrenic: are a class of disorders marked by delusions, hallucinations, disorganized
speech, and deterioration of adaptive behavior. 48% concordance rate with identical twins.
Dopamine plays a big role in this disorder. Enlarged ventricles and small prefrontal cortex is a
Paranoid: dominated by delusions of persecution, along with delusions of grandeur.
Catatonic: marked by striking motor disturbances, ranging from muscular rigidity to
random motor activity. Freezing for a while, bizarre motor behavior.
Disorganized: a particularly severe deterioration of adaptive behavior is seen. Behaviors
include emotional indifference, babbling, giggling.
Undifferentiated: marked by idiosyncratic mixtures of schizophrenic symptoms. When
you can't place a person into one of the other 3 types of schizophrenia.
Delusions: are false beliefs that are maintained even though they clearly are out of touch with
reality (I am a tiger)
Hallucinations: are sensory perceptions that occur in the absence of a real, external stimulus or
are gross distortions of perceptual input (false sensations)
Negative symptoms: involve behavioral deficits, such as flattened emotions, social withdrawal,
apathy, impaired attention, and poverty of speech.
Positive symptoms: involve behavioral excesses or peculiarities, such as hallucinations,
delusions, bizarre behavior, and wild flights of ideas.
Only 20% of schizophrenic patients recover.
Expressed emotion: is the degree to which a relative of schizophrenic patient displays highly
critical or emotionally over involved attitudes toward the patient.
Personality Disorder: are a class of disorders marked by extreme, inflexible personality traits
that cause subjective distress or impaired social and occupational functioning. There are 10
personality disorders. Antisocial personality disorder: marked by impulsive callous, manipulative, aggressive, and
irresponsible behavior that reflects a failure to accept social norms.
Autism: refers to a developmental disorder characterized by social and emotional deficits, along
with repetitive and stereotypic behaviors, interests, and activities.
Diathesis + Stress = disorder
1 in 7 adults in Ontario are stressed
Japan has a suicide rate that is double of Canada's.
Medical Model: It is the basis for many terms used to describe abnormal behavior, such as
psychological disorder, illness, etc. It was dominant throughout the 18th and 19th century. The
medical model gave more sympathy to victims of mental disorders.
Thomas Szasz: Believes abnormal behavior is a deviation from social norms.
Before the 18th century, people that seemed abnormal were thought to be possessed by
demons or victims of God's punishment. They were "treated" with chants, rituals,
Normality and abnormality exists on a continuum.
Stereotypes of Psychological Disorders:
Psychological disorders are incurable.
People with psychological disorders are often violent and dangerous.
People with psychological disorders behave in bizarre ways and are very different from
DSM: Diagnosis of disorders are made on Axis I & II. A person's psychological disorder is listed
on Axis III. Axis IV deals with stress. Axis V estimates a person's current level of adaptive
Axis I Major Depressive Disorders. Cocaine abuse.
All categories except personality disorders and
Axis II Borderline personality disorder
Axis III Hypertension
Axis IV Psychological stressors: recent divorce, job is
Axis V Current global assement of functioning (GAF):
46 ^this is a categorical approach to diagnosis. Can be bad because it leads to self fulfilling
The three most common types of disorders in North America are: substance use disorders,
anxiety disorders and mood disorders.
Generalized Anxiety Disorder: sometimes called free-floating anxiety because it is non
specific. People worry about yesterday's mistakes and tomorrow's problems. They worry about
minor matters. They worry about how much they worry. It is seen more frequently in females
Phobic Disorder: People have this disorder when their fears seriously interfere with their every
day behavior. Phobic reactions tend to be accompanied by physical symptoms of anxiety such as
trembling. Most common are acrophobia (fear of heights) and claustrophobia.
Panic Disorder and Agoraphobia: After a number of panic attacks, victims become
apprehensive, wondering when their next panic will occur. Sometimes they might be so afraid of
leaving home. This creates agoraphobia. 2/3 are female.
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: It's not that you're afraid of something, it is that you are so
obsessed with something, like keep washing your hands (Howie Mandel).
Post Traumatic Stress Disorder: people re-experience the traumatic events in form of
nightmares and flashbacks. People are vulnerable to this disorder depending on their reaction to
the even at the time. It is about the intensity of one's reaction at the time of the traumatic event.
Many anxiety disorders may be acquired through classical conditioning and maintained through
operant conditioning. Example: young boy stuck in an avalanche. Neutral stimulus (snow) paired
with frightening event (avalanche) becomes a conditioned stimulus eliciting anxiety. Also could
use operant conditioning where people avoid snow so that their fear will go down.
Women are more likely to experience depression because they are subjected to rape, harassment
poverty and role constraints.
Women attempt to commit suicide more times than men, but men commit suicide more than
Schizophrenia literally means "split mind"
People with schizophrenia have disturbed thoughts, when people with mood disorders have
1% of population suffers from schizophrenia. Some people have delusions of granduer in which they believe they are very famous and
Schizophrenia: deteruiration of adaptive behavior (john isn't himself anymore); hallucinations,
and disturbed emotions.
3 clusters of personality disorder
Avoidant: shy, yet desire interpersonal relationships
Dependent: lack self-confidence
Passive-Aggressive: intentionally frustrate others
Obsessive-Compulsive personality disorder: creates lists, plans. Person doesn't care though, no
anxiety. and many sex offenders are obsessive compulsive personality individuals.
Obssessive compulsive disorder means they have anxiety
Paranoid: suspicious, sees himself as morally correct but vulnerable to other people
Schizoid: excessively "cold, no social relationships
Schizotypal: odd, eccentric beliefs, overt hostility, no hallucinations
Histrionic: need attention, overreact. Likes to act all the time
Narcissistic: unrealistic self-importance
Borderline: unstable, impulsive, unpredictable. Often "cutters"
Antisocial: guiltless, self-indulgent, incapable of empathy, remorse, guilt. This is the most
dramatic. Synonymous with the term psychopath. CHAPTER FIFTEEN
Behavior Therapies: Based on principles of learning. Therapists make direct efforts to alter
problematic responses and maladaptive habits. They change a client's overt behavior. Most
procedures involve classical or operant conditioning. Involve the application of learning
principles to direct efforts to change clients' maladaptive behaviors.
Insight Therapies: "Talk therapy". Clients engage in complex conversations with their therapist.
The goal is to get insight about the client and try to solve their problems. Involve verbal
interactions intended to enhance client's self-knowledge and thus promote healthful changes in
personality and behavior.
Biomedical therapies: Involve interventions in a person's biological functioning. Most common
are drug and shock therapies. are physiological interventions intended to reduce symptoms
associated with psychological disorders. This is not done by psychologists.
Psychiatrist: are physicians who specialize in the diagnosis and treatment of psychological
Psychoanalysis: is an insight therapy that emphasizes the recovery of unconscious conflicts,
motives, and defenses through techniques such as free association and transference.
Free association: clients spontaneously express their thoughts and feelings exactly as they
occur, with as little censorship as possible.
Dream analysis: the therapist interprets the symbolic meaning of hte client's dreams. Dreams
are the road to the unconscious according to Freud.
Interpretation: refers to the therapist's attempts to explain the inner significance of the client's
thoughts, feelings, memories, and behaviors.
Resistance: refers to largely unconscious defensive maneuvers intended to hinder the progress of
therapy. Showing up late to appointments, etc.
Transference: occurs when clients unconsciously start relating to their therapist in ways that
mimic critical relationships in their lives.
Client-centered therapy: is an insight therapy that emphasizes providing a supportive
emotional climate for clients, who play a major role in determining the pace and direction of
Group therapy: is the simultaneous treatment of several clients in a group. Couple or marital therapy: involves the treatment of both partners in a committed, intimate
relationship, in which the main focus is on relationship issues.
Family therapy: involves the treatment of a family unit as a whole, in which the main focus is
on family dynamics and communicat