Study Guides (238,653)
Canada (115,282)
Psychology (730)
PSYC 1002 (87)

PSYC Midterm.docx

84 Pages
Unlock Document

PSYC 1002
Kim O' Neil

Chapter 9: Intelligence and Psychological Testing Slides – Key Concepts in Psychological Testing – – Standardization  Standardization refers to the uniform procedures used in the administration and scoring of a test.  Test norms o Test norms provide information about where a score on a psychological test ranks in relation to other scores on that test…allows a psychologist to determine how a person scores relative to other people.  Standardization group o The standardization group is the sample of people that the norms are based on. – Reliability  Reliability refers to a test‟s consistency; that is, repeated measurements should yield reasonably similar results.  Correlation coefficient o Reliability estimates are based on the correlation coefficient. Two sets of scores from two administrations of the same test are correlated; the closer the correlation comes to +1.00, the more reliable the test. – Validity  Validity refers to the ability of a test to measure what it was designed to measure.  Content validity o Content validity is the degree to which the content of a test is representative of the domain it is supposed to cover (physics questions on a psychology test…poor content validity).  Criterion-related validity o Criterion-related validity is estimated by correlating subjects‟ scores on a test with their scores on an independent criterion…predictive ability.  Construct validity o Construct validity is the extent to which there is evidence that a test measures a particular hypothetical construct…are we really measuring intelligence with an IQ test? – – Principal Types of Psychological Tests – – Psychological tests are standardized measures of behaviour. Most psychological tests fall under two broad categories, mental ability tests and personality scales. –  Mental ability tests  Mental ability tests include intelligence tests, which are designed to measure general mental ability, and aptitude tests, which measure more specific mental abilities. o Intelligence – general o Aptitude – specific  Personality scales  Personality measures are usually called scales, rather than tests, as there are no right or wrong answers.  Personality tests measure a variety of motives, interests, values, and attitudes. o Measure motives, interests, values, and attitudes – – – – Fig 9.2 – Correlation and reliability. As explained in Chapter 2, a positive correlation means that two variables covary in the same direction; a negative correlation means that two variables covary in the opposite direction. The closer the correlation coefficient gets to either – 1.00 or +1.00, the stronger the relationship. At a minimum, reliability estimates for psychological tests must be moderately high positive correlations. Most reliability coefficients fall between 0.70 and 0.95. – – – – Fig 9.3 – Criterion-related validity. To evaluate the criterion-related validity of a pilot aptitude test, a psychologist would correlate subjects’ test scores with a criterion measure of their aptitude, such as ratings of their performance in a pilot training program. The validity of the test is supported if a substantial correlation is found between the two measures. If little or no relationship exists between the two sets of scores, the data do not provide support for the validity of the test. – – – – Fig 9.4 – Construct validity. Psychologists evaluate a scale’s construct validity by studying how scores on the scale correlate with a variety of variables. For example, some of the evidence on the construct validity of the Expression Scale from the Psychological Screening Inventory is summarized here. This scale is supposed to measure the personality trait of extraversion. As you can see on the left side of this network of correlations, the scale correlates negatively with measures of social introversion, social discomfort, and neuroticism, just as one would expect if the scale is really tapping extraversion. On the right, you can see that the scale is correlated positively with measures of sociability and self- acceptance and another index of extraversion as one would anticipate. At the bottom, you can see that the scale does not correlate with several traits that should be unrelated to extraversion. Thus, the network of correlations depicted here supports the – idea that the Expression Scale measures extraversion. – – The Evolution of Intelligence Testing –  Sir Francis Galton (1869)  Hereditary Genius  Sir Francis Galton, 1869, published Hereditary Genius, in which he put forth the notion that success runs in families because intelligence is inherited. He developed a crude mental abilities test based on sensory acuity.  Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon (1905)  Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon published the first intelligence test in 1905, a test designed to single out youngsters in need of special training…expressed a child‟s score in terms of mental age…for example, a 4 year old child with a mental age of 6 performed like the average 6 year-old on the test.  Binet-Simon Intelligence Scale  Mental age  Lewis Terman (1916)  Lewis Terman, at Stanford University, revised Binet‟s test for use in the U.S….the Stanford-Binet.  Terman used a new scoring scheme, the intelligence quotient, dividing a child‟s mental age by chronological age and multiplying by 100…this made it possible to compare children of different ages.  Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale  Intelligence Quotient (IQ) = MA/CA x 100  David Wechsler (1955)  David Wechsler was the fist to devise an instrument to measure intelligence in adults. He later devised downward extensions of his scale for children. Wechsler is credited with two innovations in intelligence testing. First, his scales give more emphasis to nonverbal reasoning, yielding a verbal IQ, a performance IQ, and a full-scale IQ. Second, Wechsler devised a new scoring system based on the normal distribution…the deviation IQ. This scoring system is outlined on the next slide.  Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale – – – – – – Fig 9.7 – Subtests on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS). The WAIS is subdivided into a series of tests that yield separate verbal and performance (nonverbal) IQ scores. Examples of low-level (easy) test items that closely resemble – those on the WAIS are shown on the right. – – – – Fig 9.8 – The normal distribution. Many characteristics are distributed in a pattern represented by this bell-shaped curve. The horizontal axis shows how far above or below the mean a score is (measured in plus or minus standard deviations). The vertical axis is used to graph the number of cases obtaining each score. In a normal distribution, the cases are distributed in a fixed pattern. For instance, 68.26% of the cases fall between +1 and –1 standard deviation. Modern IQ scores indicate where a person’s measured intelligence falls in the normal distribution. On most IQ tests, the mean is set at an IQ of 100 and the standard deviation at 15. Thus, an IQ of 130 means that a person scored 2 standard deviations above the mean. Any deviation IQ score can be converted into a percentile score, which indicates the percentage of cases obtaining a lower score. The mental classifications at the bottom of the figure are descriptive labels that roughly correspond to ranges of IQ scores. – – Validity of IQ Tests –  Are IQ Tests Valid?  Sternberg's (1981) categories:  Verbal  Practical  Social  Which do IQ tests measure?  Stanovich (2009) criticisms – – Reliability and Validity of IQ Tests –  Exceptionally reliable – correlations into the .90s  Qualified validity – valid indicators of academic/verbal intelligence, not intelligence in a truly general sense  Correlations:  .40s-.50s with school success  .60s-.80s with number of years in school  Predictive of occupational attainment, debate about predictiveness of performance  Although they are intended to measure potential, IQ tests inevitably assess both knowledge and potential.  IQ tests are, however, exceptionally reliable, with reliability coefficients into the .90s.  IQ tests are reasonably valid indicators of academic intelligence, as they predict school success and number of years in school.  They are not good measures of social or practical intelligence and do not measure intelligence in a truly general sense.  IQ scores are positively correlated with high status jobs; this may be related to the correlation with school success.  There is conflicting evidence regarding whether IQ scores predict occupational performance. Court rulings and laws now require that tests used in selection of employees measure specific abilities related to job performance. – – Stability and Culture –  Stability not seen in infancy/preschool ages  Scores are stable around ages 7 yrs +  Changes can occur (e.g. Headstart Programs)  Used in Western Cultures and not in non-Western Cultures  Cross-cultural issues – – Extremes of Intelligence: Mental Retardation –  Diagnosis based on IQ and adaptive testing  IQ 2 or more SD below mean  Adaptive skill deficits  Origination before age 18  4 levels: mild, moderate, severe, profound  Mild most common by far  Causes:  Environmental vs. Biological  Mental retardation is a diagnosis reserved for individuals with subaverage general mental ability accompanied by deficiencies in adaptive skills, originating before age 18.  The vast majority of people with mental retardation have mild mental retardation and are not easily distinguished from the rest of the population.  Origins of mental retardation may include organic syndromes, as 350 biological conditions that can cause mental retardation have been identified. Diagnosticians are, however, only able to pin down an organic cause in <25% of cases.  In fact, cases of mild mental retardation tend to involve unknown origin. Environmental theories hold that unfavorable environmental factors may contribute to the development of mild mental retardation; things like neglect, inadequate nutrition and medical care, and lower quality schooling. – – – – – – Fig 9.10 – The prevalence and severity of mental retardation. The overall prevalence of mental retardation is roughly 1 to 3% of the general population. The vast majority (85%) of the retarded population is mildly retarded. Only about 15% of the retarded population falls into the subcategories of moderate, severe, or profound retardation. – – – – Fig 9.11 – Social class and mental retardation. This graph charts the prevalence of mild retardation (IQ 60 to 69) and more severe forms of retardation (IQ below 50) in relation to social class. Severe forms of retardation are distributed pretty evenly across the social classes, a finding that is consistent with the notion that they are the product of biological aberrations that are equally likely to strike anyone. In contrast, the prevalence of mild retardation is greatly elevated in the lower social classes, a finding that meshes with the notion that mild retardation is largely a product of unfavorable environmental factors. (Source: Adapted from Popper and Steingard, 1994) – – Extremes of Intelligence: Giftedness –  Identification issues – ideals vs. practice  IQ 2 SD above mean standard  Creativity, leadership, special talent?  Stereotypes – weak, socially inept, emotionally troubled  Lewis Terman (1925) – largely contradicted stereotypes o Lewis Terman initiated a study in the early 1920‟s with 1500 children with IQs of 150 or higher. These children were followed throughout their lives. As a group, these subjects exhibited better than average physical health, emotional stability, and social satisfaction through their adult years.  Ellen Winner (1997) – moderately vs. profoundly gifted o Ellen Winner (1997) claims that a distinction needs to be made between moderately gifted (IQ 130-150) and profoundly gifted (IQ above 180) individuals, asserting that profoundly gifted children are often introverted and isolated.  Giftedness and high achieving – beyond IQ  Renzulli (2002) – intersection of three factors  Simonton (2001) – drudge theory and inborn talent  ―Hidden gifted  There are discrepancies between ideals and practice regarding how gifted children are identified in the U.S. Usually, identification occurs based on IQ of 130 or higher, although creativity, leadership, and special talents are recommended for use in identification as well.  Gifted individuals are often stereotyped as weak, sickly, socially inept, and emotionally troubled “bookworms.”  Studies of giftedness and achievement in life suggest that more than IQ determines high achievement. Joseph Renzulli theorizes that there is a more rare form of giftedness, based in an intersection of 3 factors, that leads to genuine greatness…high intelligence, high creativity, and high motivation.  Drudge theory is captured in the reaction of one talented violinist after a critic termed him a genius – “A genius! For 37 years I‟ve practiced fourteen hours a day, and now they call me a genius!” – While clearly obsessive hard work is important in this case, it can be argued that inborn ability allowed him to work harder because he found his efforts more rewarding. Simonton proposes an elaborate theory of talent development that gives roles to both innate ability and environmental factors. – – Intelligence: Heredity or Environment? –  Heredity  Family and twin studies  Heritability estimates  Environment  Adoption studies  Cumulative deprivation hypothesis  The Flynn effect  Interaction  The concept of the reaction range  This issue has far-reaching sociopolitical implications and continues to be a complex controversy.  Family studies determine only whether genetic influence on a trait is plausible, not whether it is certain. Family members also share environments.  Twin studies provide evidence regarding the role of genetic factors. The basic rationale is that identical and fraternal twins develop under similar environmental conditions, but identical twins share more genes…if identical twins end up more similar on a given characteristic, it must be genetic.  A heritability ratio is an estimate of the proportion of trait variability in a population that is determined by variations in genetic inheritance. A heritability estimate is a group statistic and cannot be meaningfully applied to individuals.  Adoption studies provide evidence that upbringing plays an important role in mental ability, as adopted children show some resemblance to their foster parents. Also, siblings reared together are more similar in IQ than siblings reared apart. In fact, entirely unrelated children who are reared together show resemblance in IQ.  The cumulative deprivation hypothesis holds that children raised in deprived environments will experience a gradual decline in IQ as they grow older. Conversely, children removed from deprived environments and placed in homes that are more conducive for learning show IQ increases.  The Flynn effect is the trend, all over the developed world, for IQ scores to increase from one generation to the next. Hypotheses for why this occurs focus on environmental variables, as evolution does not operate in a generation.  Clearly, heredity and environment both influence intelligence. Theorists use the term “reaction range” to refer to genetically determined limits on IQ. The environment determines whether a person will fall at the upper or lower end of their genetically determined range. – – – – Fig 9.13 – Studies of IQ similarity. The graph shows the mean correlations of IQ scores for people of various types of relationships, as obtained in studies of IQ similarity. Higher correlations indicate greater similarity. The results show that greater genetic similarity is associated with greater similarity in IQ, suggesting that intelligence is partly inherited (compare, for example, the correlations for identical and fraternal twins). However, the results also show that living together is associated with greater IQ similarity, suggesting that intelligence is partly governed by environment (compare, for example, – the scores of siblings reared together and reared apart). (Data from McGue et al., 1993) – – – – Fig 9.14 – The concept of heritability. A heritability ratio is an estimate of the portion of variation in a trait determined by heredity— with the remainder presumably determined by environment—as these pie charts illustrate. Typical heritability estimates for intelligence range between a high of 70% and a low of 50%, although some estimates have fallen outside this range. Bear in mind that heritability ratios are estimates and have certain limitations that are discussed in the text. – – – – Fig 9.16 – Reaction range. The concept of reaction range posits that heredity sets limits on one’s intellectual potential (represented by the horizontal bars), while the quality of one’s environment influences where one scores within this range (represented by the dots on the bars). People raised in enriched environments should score near the top of their reaction range, whereas people raised in poor-quality environments should score near the bottom of their range. Genetic limits on IQ can be inferred only indirectly, so theorists aren’t sure whether reaction ranges are narrow (like Ted’s) or wide (like Chris’s). The concept of reaction range can explain how two people with similar genetic potential can be quite different in intelligence (compare Tom and Jack) and how two people reared in environments of similar quality can score quite differently (compare Alice and Jack). – – Cultural Differences in IQ –  Heritability as an Explanation  Aurthur Jensen (1969) o Arthur Jensen argued that cultural differences in average IQ are largely due to heredity.  Herrnstein and Murray (1994) – The Bell Curve o The authors of The Bell Curve, by implying that we are moving toward a meritocracy based on intellect, ignited the same controversy. o These arguments have been challenged on a number of grounds. First, even if IQ is largely due to heredity, group differences may not be. Social class and socioeconomic disadvantage are correlated with ethnicity, so environmental variables are not equal between groups.  Rushton ―Race, Evolution, and Behaviour‖ o Philippe Rushton‟s book Race, Evolution, and Behavior (1995) argued that genetics were the cause for intellectual and behavioural differences between cultural groups. His book was criticized as being based on bad science, sloppy reasoning, and inaccuracies.  Environment as an Explanation  Kamin’s cornfield analogy – socioeconomic disadvantage o Kamin‟s cornfield analogy, presented on the next slide, depicts this issue.  Steele (1997) - stereotype vulnerability o Claude Steele argues that derogatory stereotypes create feelings of vulnerability in the educational domain, undermining group members‟ achievement and performance on tests. – – – Fig 9.17 – Genetics and between-group differences on a trait. Kamin’s analogy (see text) shows how between-group differences on a trait (the height of corn plants) could be due to environment, even if the trait is largely inherited. The same reasoning presumably applies to ethnic group differences in the trait of human intelligence. – – New Directions in the Study of Intelligence –  Increased emphasis on specific abilities  Moving beyond Spearman’s g  Guilford’s 150 distinct mental abilities. o Increased emphasis is being placed on specific abilities rather than a general mental ability that Charles Spearman labeled g. Spearman used a statistical procedure called factor analysis to determine intercorrelated, specific mental talents (s) (concluding that all cognitive abilities share a common core). In contrast, J.P. Guilford asserts that intelligence is made up of as many as 150 distinct mental abilities.  Fluid vs. crystallized intelligence o Cattell and Horn suggest that g should be divided into fluid intelligence, which consists of reasoning ability, memory capacity, speed of information processing, and crystallized intelligence, which consists of the ability to apply acquired knowledge and skills in problem solving.  Biological Indexes of Intelligence  Reaction time and inspection time o Other researchers, such as Aurthur Jensen, are searching for physiological indicators of general intelligence. Reaction time has been used in these studies, although the “fast is smart” idea is modest at best. Other measures studied include inspection time, which is an assessment of how long it takes to make simple perceptual discriminations that meet a certain criterion of accuracy. Higher correlations with IQ have been found with this measure, although much work remains to be done to discover why.  Cognitive Conceptualizations of Intelligence  Sternberg’s triarchic theory and successful intelligence o For over a century, intelligence was approached from a testing perspective. In contrast, the cognitive perspective focuses on how people use their intelligence. Robert Sternberg‟s triarchic theory of intelligence consists of three parts: the contextual, experiential, and componential subtheories. In more recent years (1999, 2000), Sternberg has asserted that there are three aspects of what he calls “successful intelligence” – analytical intelligence, creative intelligence, and practical intelligence.  Expanding the Concept of Intelligence  Gardner’s multiple intelligences o Other theorists propose an expansion of the concept of intelligence. Howard Gardner argues that IQ tests emphasize verbal and mathematical skills and exclude other important skills. He suggests the existence of a number of human intelligences, listed in Table 9.3.  Goleman’s emotional intelligence o Daniel Goleman and others argue for the concept of emotional intelligence, which is the ability to perceive and express emotion, assimilate emotion in thought, understand and reason with emotion, and regulate emotion. – – – – Fig 9.5 – Spearman’s g. In his analysis of the structure of intellect, Charles Spearman found that specific mental talents (S1, S2, S3, and so on) were highly intercorrelated. Thus, he concluded that all cognitive abilities share a common core, which he labeled g for general mental ability. – – – – Fig 9.6 – Guilford’s model of mental abilities. In contrast to Spearman (see Figure 9.18), J. P. Guilford concluded that intelligence is made up of many separate abilities. According to his analysis, people may have as many as 150 distinct mental abilities that can be characterized in terms of the operations, contents, and products of intellectual activity. – – – – – Fig 9.20 – Sternberg’s triarchic theory of intelligence. Sternberg’s model of intelligence consists of three parts: the contextual subtheory, the experiential subtheory, and the componential subtheory. Much of Sternberg’s research has been devoted to the componential subtheory, as he has attempted to identify the cognitive processes that contribute to intelligence. He believes that these processes fall into three groups: metacomponents, performance components, and knowledge-acquisition components. – – Creativity –  Defined  Insight  Divergent vs. Convergent thinking  Measuring  Remote Associates Test (1967)  Predictive ability  Correlates  Personality, Intelligence & Mental Illness – Chapter 10: Motivation and Emotion Slides – Motivational Theories and Concepts –  Motives – needs, wants, desires leading to goal-directed behavior  Motives are the needs, wants, interests, and desires that propel people toward behaviour.  Drive theories – seeking homeostasis  Drive theories hold that motivation is based in an internal state of tension that motivates an organism to engage in activities that should reduce this tension…organisms seek to maintain homeostasis, or a state of equilibrium or stability.  Incentive theories – regulation by external stimuli  Incentive theories hold that motivation is regulated by external stimuli…ice cream, an A, money, etc.  Evolutionary theories – maximizing reproductive success  Evolutionary theories hold that natural selection favors behaviours that maximize reproductive success…explains affiliation, achievement, dominance, aggression, and sex drive in terms of adaptive value. – – – – The Motivation of Hunger and Eating: Biological Factors –  Brain regulation  Lateral and ventromedial hypothalamus o Research in the 40‟s and 50‟s showed that the hypothalamus, particularly two areas called the lateral hypothalamus (LH) and the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH), are important in hunger. The LH was thought to be the hunger center, while the VMH was thought to be the satiety center. Subsequent research indicated that this was an oversimplified picture, although the LH and VMH are part of the hunger circuit, they are not the key elements.  Paraventricular nucleus o The paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus has recently been implicated as another influential part of the hunger circuit.  Glucose and digestive regulation  Glucostatic theory o Other research has focused on the role of blood glucose and digestive regulation on hunger; when blood sugar goes down, hunger goes up. Glucostatic theory proposed that fluctuations in blood glucose level are monitored in the brain by glucostats – neurons sensitive to glucose in the surrounding fluid. It appears likely that hunger is regulated, in part, through glucostatic mechanisms.  Hormonal regulation  Insulin and leptin o Hormones circulating in the blood also appear to be related to hunger. Insulin, secreted by the pancreas, must be present for cells to use blood glucose. Increases in insulin increase hunger, and the mere sight and smell of food has been shown to increase insulin. o Recently, a new hormone, leptin, has been discovered to be released from fat cells into the bloodstream. Leptin is believed to signal the hypothalamus about fat stores in the body, causing decreases in hunger when fat stores are high.  In the early 1900‟s, Walter Cannon and A.L. Washburn hypothesized that there is an association between stomach contractions and the experience of hunger; Cannon hypothesized a causal relationship, yet people who have their stomachs removed still experience hunger. This realization led to more complicated theories focusing on the brain, blood sugar, and hormones. – – – – Fig 10.3 – The hypothalamus. This small structure at the base of the forebrain plays a role in regulating a variety of human biological needs, including hunger. The detailed blowup shows that the hypothalamus is made up of a variety of discrete areas. Scientists used to believe that the lateral and ventromedial areas were the brain’s start and stop centres for eating. However, more recent research suggests that the paraventricular nucleus is more crucial to the regulation of hunger. – – The Motivation of Hunger and Eating: Environmental Factors –  Learned preferences and habits  Exposure  When, as well as what  Clearly, hunger is related to biology; however, it is also regulated by environmental factors like learned preferences. Studies show that people like foods that are familiar to them; dog meat is a delicacy in some parts of the world. Exposure and observational learning appear to play a part in what we like to eat. Learning also appears to influence when and how much people eat.  Food-related cues  Appearance, odour, effort required  Food related cues are environmental cues that have been associated with eating, such as the appearance or odor of food, the effort required to eat a particular food, etc. Research shows that these external cues influence eating behaviour to some extent, beyond biological hunger.  Stress  Link between heightened arousal/negative emotion and overeating  Finally, stress has been shown to be related to increased eating, with some research indicating that chronic dieters are more likely to respond to stress with eating. It is unclear whether stress induced eating is caused by physiological arousal or negative emotion. It is also unclear whether the effects of stress on hunger are direct or indirect. – – Eating and Weight: The Roots of Obesity –  Evolutionary explanations  Genetic predisposition  Body Mass Index and adoption study  The concept of set point/settling point  Excessive Eating/Inadequate Exercise, Dietary restraint  Eating Disorders  Obesity is the condition of being overweight. Criteria differ, but one definition assumes that people are overweight if their weight exceeds their ideal body weight by 20%.  Obesity is a significant health problem, elevating mortality risk.  Evolutionary explanations for increases in the prevalence of obesity are based in food supply changes. Whereas most animals evolved in environments where competition for food was fierce and food supplies were unreliable, the vast majority of humans now live in environments where food is abundant and reliable.  Research suggests that some people can eat more than others without gaining weight and that this may have a genetic basis. When adults raised by foster parents are compared to biological and foster parents in regard to BMI (weight in kilograms divided by height in meters, squared), adoptees resemble biological parents, not adoptive. Twin studies suggest that genetic factors account for 61% of the variation in body weight among men and 73% among women.  Lose weight on a diet, gain it back. The reverse is also true. Intentionally put on weight and have a hard time keeping it on. Richard Keesy, 1995, suggests that our bodies have a set point, or natural point of stability in body weight. This appears to be related to fat cell levels…when fat stores slip below a crucial level, hunger increases and metabolism decreases. Settling-point theory (Pinel, et al., 2000) alternatively proposes that weight hovers near the level at which the constellation of factors that determine food consumption and energy expenditure achieve an equilibrium. Thus, according to this theory, weight remains stable as long as there are no durable changes in any of the factors that influence it.  Researchers have also shown that dietary restraint may contribute to obesity. Chronic dieters restrain themselves from eating and go hungry much of the time, but they are constantly thinking about food. When they give in, they become disinhibited and eat to excess…the “I‟ve already blown it” problem. – – – – – (a) Percentage of adults of normal weight in 1994-95 who became overweight by 2002-03. (b) Percentage of overweight adults in 1994-95 who became obese by 2003-03. Source: Le Petit & Berthelot (2005). – – – – Fig 10.6 – The heritability of weight. Body mass index is a measure of weight that controls for variations in height. Twin studies reveal that identical twins are much more similar in body mass index than fraternal twins, suggesting that genetic factors account for much of the variation among people in the propensity to become overweight. (Data from Stunkard et al., 1990) – – Human Sexual Response –  Excitement Phase  Plateau Phase  Orgasm Phase  Resolution Phase – – – – – – Sexual Motivation and Behaviour: Determining Desire –  Parental Investment Theory (Trivers, 1972)  Gender Differences  Drive and Cognition  Mate Preferences  Erotic materials: The Porn Debate  Evolutionary factors  Featured Study p. 458  Hormones exert considerable influence on sexual behaviour in many animals, but human sexuality is influenced by much more than hormones. Research suggests that hormones do have at least a small role in human sexual behaviour, as testosterone fluctuations are correlated with sexual activity.  A pheromone is a chemical secreted by one animal that affects the behaviour of another, usually detected through the sense of smell. Research on pheromones in humans is inconclusive with regard to sexual desire; however, they have been linked to synchronized ovulation among women who live together.  Aphrodisiacs are substances thought to increase sexual desire. Research shows that oysters, vitamin E, etc., have no real impact on sexual desire. Pharmaceutical companies are, however, working on developing aphrodisiacs, and there are promising leads. Viagra is not a sexual stimulant, improving performance, not desire.  Erotic materials have been shown to elevate sexual desire only for a few hours, but they may have an enduring effect on attitudes about sex. Aggressive pornography may make sexual coercion seem less offensive and may contribute to date rape.  Attraction to a partner is a critical determinant of sexual interest. The phenomenon of a new sexual partner reviving sexual interest is termed the Coolidge effect.  Evolutionary factors in human sexual behaviour are theorized to hinge on parental investment, with females being more discriminating in choosing partners and less likely to engage in casual sex. This has been used to explain sex differences such as males thinking about sex more frequently, males emphasizing youthfulness and attractiveness in a potential partner, and females emphasizing status and financial prospects in a potential partner. – – – – Fig 10.9 – Parental investment theory and mating preferences. Parental investment theory suggests that basic differences between males and females in parental investment have great adaptive significance and lead to gender differences in mating propensities and preferences, as outlined here. – – – – Fig 10.10 – The gender gap in how much people think about sex. This graph summarizes data on how often males and females think about sex, based on a large-scale survey by Laumann, et al., (1994). As evolutionary theorists would predict, based on parental investment theory, males seem to manifest more interest in sexual activity than their female counterparts. – – – – Fig 10.12 – Gender and potential mates’ financial prospects. Consistent with evolutionary theory, Buss (1989) found that females place more emphasis on potential partners’ financial prospects than males do. Moreover, he found that this trend transcended culture. The specific results for 6 of the 37 cultures studied by Buss are shown here. – – – – Fig 10.13 – Gender and potential mates’ physical attractiveness. Consistent with evolutionary theory, Buss (1989) found that all over the world, males place more emphasis on potential partners’ good looks than do females. The specific results for 6 of the 37 cultures studied by Buss are shown here. – – The Mystery of Sexual Orientation –  Heterosexual – Bisexual – Homosexual  A continuum  Theories explaining homosexuality  Environmental  Biological  Interactionist  Sexual orientation refers to a person‟s preference for emotional and sexual relationships with individuals of the same sex (homosexuality), the other sex (heterosexuality), or either sex (bisexuality).  Recent conceptualizations of sexuality hold that homosexuality and heterosexuality are endpoints on a continuum.  Data on the prevalence of homosexuality suggests that 5-8% of the population may have a homosexual orientation.  Many environmental theories explaining homosexuality have been put forth historically. Freud held that a person must identify with the same sexed parent, or homosexuality results. behaviourists assert that homosexuality is learned through conditioning. Research has failed to support either theory. What has been found is that most men and women with homosexual orientations can trace their leanings back to early childhood, suggesting a biological basis.  Biological research suggests that there is a genetic predisposition to homosexuality, possibly based on the X chromosome. Anatomical differences between gay and straight men in the size of the anterior hypothalamus have also been found. This structure is larger in men than in women, and this study showed that gay men had a 50% smaller AH than straight men.  Some theorists believe that anatomical brain differences such as these may be due to the organizing effects of prenatal hormones on neurological development.  The interactionist view holds that genes and prenatal hormones shape a child‟s temperament, which initiates a chain of events that ultimately shapes sexual orientation. – – – – Fig 10.15 – Homosexuality and heterosexuality as endpoints on a continuum. Sex researchers view heterosexuality and homosexuality as falling on a continuum rather than make an all-or-none distinction. Kinsey and his associates (1948, 1953) created this seven-point scale (from 0 to 6) to describe people’s sexual orientation. They used the term ambisexual to describe those who fall in the middle of the scale, but such people are commonly called bisexual today. – – – – Fig 10.16 – How common is homosexuality? The answer to this question is both complex and controversial. Michaels (1996) brought together data from two large-scale surveys to arrive at the estimates shown here. If you look at how many people have actually had a same- sex partner in the last five years, the figures are relatively low, but if you count those who have had a same-sex partner since puberty the figures more than double. Still another approach is to ask people whether they are attracted to others of the same sex (regardless of their actual behaviour). This approach suggests that about 8% of the population could be characterized as homosexual. – – – – Fig 10.17 – Genetics and sexual orientation. A concordance rate indicates the percentage of twin pairs or other pairs of relatives who exhibit the same characteristic. If relatives who share more genetic relatedness show higher concordance rates than relatives who share less genetic overlap, this evidence suggests a genetic predisposition to the characteristic. Recent studies of both gay men and lesbian women have found higher concordance rates among identical twins than fraternal twins, who, in turn, exhibit more concordance than adoptive siblings. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that genetic factors influence sexual orientation. (Data from Bailey & Pillard, – 1991; Bailey et al., 1993) – – Affiliation and Achievement Motivation –  Affiliation motive = need for social bonds  Devote more time to interpersonal activities  Worry more about acceptance  Achievement motive = need to excel  Work harder and more persistently  Delay gratification  Pursue competitive careers  Situational influences on achievement motives  Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)  Affiliation motivation is the need to associate with others and to maintain social bonds. People who are relatively high in affiliation motivation tend to devote more time to interpersonal activities and to worry more about acceptance than others do.  Achievement motivation involves the need to excel, especially in competition with others.  People who are relatively high in the need for achievement work harder and more persistently, they tend to delay gratification well and to pursue competitive careers.  Both affiliation and achievement motivation are generally measured using the TAT, a projective test which requires a subject to write or tell stories about what is happening in pictures of people in ambiguous scenes.  Situational factors have been shown to influence achievement motivation, causing it to increase when the probability of success and the incentive value of success are high. Additionally, the pursuit of achievement can be influenced by a fear of failure, so that the motive to avoid failure stimulates achievement. – – – – Fig 10.19 – Determinants of achievement behaviour. According to John Atkinson, a person’s pursuit of achievement in a particular situation depends on several factors. Some of these factors, such as need for achievement or fear of failure, are relatively stable motives that are part of the person’s personality. Many other factors, such as the likelihood and value of success or failure, vary from one situation to another, depending on the circumstances. – – The Elements of Emotional Experience –  Cognitive component  Subjective conscious experience  Positive psychology  Physiological component  Bodily (autonomic) arousal  Affective Neuroscience  Behavioural component  Characteristic overt expressions  The cognitive component of emotion involves subjective feelings that have an evaluative aspect…a cognitive appraisal of an event is an important element in emotional experience. Researchers have, in the past, focused primarily on negative emotions, consistent with the bias in the field of psychology toward studying pathology, weakness, and suffering. In recent years, however, a group of psychologists have advocated for positive psychology…increasing research on contentment, well-being, human strength, and positive emotion.  The physiological arousal associated with emotion occurs through the actions of the autonomic nervous system. The autonomic nervous system is responsible for the highly emotional fight-or-flight response. The galvanic skin response (GSR) measures autonomic activation – the device that measures autonomic fluctuations while a person is questioned is called a polygraph or lie detector (really an emotion detector). Polygraph tests measure emotion, which may or may not be due to deceit; they are inaccurate often enough that they are deemed not reliable enough to be submitted as evidence in most types of courtrooms.  In the brain, the limbic system is the emotional circuit (the hypothalamus, the amygdala, and adjacent structures); Joseph LeDoux (1996) has shown that the amygdala plays a particularly central role in modulating emotions.  behaviourally, emotions are expressed through body language and facial expressions. Research indicates considerable cross-cultural similarities in the ability to differentiate facial expressions of emotion. The facial- feedback hypothesis holds that facial muscles send signals to the brain that help it recognize the emotion being experienced…smile and feel better.  Cross-cultural similarities have also been found in the cognitive and behavioural components, although display rules, or norms for regulating appropriate expression of emotion, vary from culture to culture. – – – – Fig 10.22 – The amygdala and fear. Emotions are controlled by a constellation of interacting brain systems, but the amygdala appears to play a particularly crucial role. According to LeDoux (1996), sensory inputs that can trigger fear arrive in the thalamus and then are routed along a fast pathway (shown in red) directly to the amygdala, and along a slow pathway (shown in green) that allows the cortex time to think about the situation. Activity in the fast pathway allows for rapid responses to threats, which has probably had – adaptive significance for humans. Activity in this pathway also quickly elicits the autonomic – arousal and hormonal responses that are part of the physiological component of emotion. – – – – Cross-cultural comparisons of people’s ability to recognize emotions from facial expressions. Ekman and Friesen (1975) found that people in highly disparate cultures showed fair agreement on the emotions portrayed in these photos. This consensus across cultures suggests that facial expressions of emotions may have a biological basis. – – Theories of Emotion –  James-Lange  Feel afraid because pulse is racing  Cannon-Bard  Thalamus sends signals simultaneously to the cortex and the autonomic nervous system  Schacter’s Two-Factor Theory  Look to external cues to decide what to feel  Evolutionary Theories  Innate reactions with little cognitive interpretation  The James-Lange theory of emotion holds that you see a snake, your pulse races, and you feel afraid because your pulse is racing.  The Cannon-Bard the
More Less

Related notes for PSYC 1002

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.