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midterm 2 study guide with definitions.docx

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ANTH 202
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Lesson 6Making a living and modes of productionAgriculture Mono cropping mechanization fertilization irrigation larger yields per acre Intensive agriculture distinctions between small scale agriculture family farms and large scale industrial scale sedentarism high population density private ownership of land accumulation of surplus socialeconomic inequalities division of labour according to gender and agespecialization of labour formal leadership centralization of power political unit is the stateDumpster diving Also known as urban foragingExtensive agricultureFamily farming See agriculture It is small scale agricultureFood crisis of 2008 Due to environmental factors draught in Australia and monsoons in Assia affect production of rice and wheat economic factors transformation of corn into biofuelcreates shortage in corn as food high price of petrol international subsidies and competition social factor changing food abits in various parts of the world and demographic factor increase in populationForaging Also called hunting and gathering Found in places where horticulture cannot take place some exceptions They are nomadic thus no private ownership of land equal accss to natural resources generalized reciprocity and no accumulation of wealth There is no specialization of of labour but gendered divison of labour private ownership of tools informal leadership egalitarian societies and they are in small unit of about 50 people called bandsForces of production labour power people and means of production see means of productionHorticulture Also called slash and burn cultivation swidden cultivation shifting cultivation extensive agriculture Etymology from latin word hortis garden which contrasts with latin word ager field Found primarily in tropical areas Technology multicropping use of fallows fallow cycle felling trees garden cleared garden planted garden harvested new land or land left fallow times 2 continue at beginning no mechanization no irrigation no fertilization no draft animals or plows small yields per acre They live in small residential units larger tribal units 300 to 6000 people sedentarism but hamlets can be relocated gendered division of labour no private ownership of land only rights to use land within ones lineage private ownership of tools possibility of accumulation of surplus formal leadership headman big man exchange is balanced reciprocityHouseholdbudgetHunting and gathering Another term for foragingIndustrialismMode of production The dominant way of making a living in a society produce goods and services
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