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Midterm

BIOL 337 Midterm: midterm table of all phylums
BIOL 337 Midterm: midterm table of all phylums
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School
Concordia University
Department
Biology
Course
BIOL 337
Professor
Holly Caravan
Semester
Winter

Description
PORIFERA ANATOMY NUTRITION EXCRETION GAS EXCHANGE/ NERVOUS SYSTEM REPRODUCTION OSMOREGULATION Porifera - Rigid, perforated - filter feeders – - diffusion: excrete - fresh water - lack nerves - asexual: bag with inner phagocytosis and ammonia and gas sponges use water - can respond to fragmentation / budding surface lined with pinocytosis exchange expulsion vesicles external stimuli gemmules = small spherical flagellated cells - particles are trapped - diffuse across the for osmoregulation - closing ostia or structures produced at the (choanocytes). in mucus of choanoderm(high - contractile vacuoles oscula ; constricting beginning of winter in - empty space within choanocyte collar, surface area) canals freshwater sponges  = spongocoel and then - sponge cells have aggregate of archaeocytes - water flows into endocytosed non-self & food reserves, coated spongocoel through - partial digestionin recognition abilities with spongin and spicules, ostia and out choanocyte, then - form a barrier; resistant to freezing/drying through oscula transfer to cytotoxic reactions &in spring archaeocytes - choanocytes make archaeocyte for final flow out and differentiate water current, digestion and - most sponges are capture food transport hermaphroditic, but particles and produce sperm & eggs at sperm different times - pinacocytes, - fertilization and early porocytes, development typically choanocytes, internal archaeocytes, - choanocytes capture sclerocytes, sperm; transport to spongocytes mesophyll for fertilization - spicules –maintain - sometimes fertilization shape and external discourage - sponge larvae are predation lecithotrophic (feed on - sponges harvour yolk; non-feeding) bacterial symbionts - 3larval sites: coeloblastula,parenchymul a,amphiblastula - Class - calcareous sponges; - - - - - Calcare spicules = calcium a carbonate - all marine - asconoid, synconoid, orleuconoid types - Class - spicules = silica or - carnivorous deep sea - - - - Demo- sponging sponges spongi - marine, breackfish - trap prey on hook- ae or freshwater shaped spicules - all leuconoid types - lack ostia, oscula, canal system, choanocytes - Class - glass sponges; - - - - - Hexact spicules = silica and - chitin, six-rayed inellida - syncytial – single plasma membrane with many nuclei - no pinacoderm- cannot contract - all marine - synocoid or leuconoid - Class - mostlack spicules; if - - - - - Homos present, silica- clerom based orpha - have basal membrane unlike other sponges - leuconoid CNIDARIA ANATOMY NUTRITION EXCRETION GAS EXCHANGE / NERVOUS SYSTEM REPRODUCTION MOVEMENT OSMOREGULATION - Diploblastic Extracellular - Ammonia - Gastrovascular - Nerve net - Planula larvae - Epitheliomuscular cells arranged in longitudinal and - Cnidae digestion in excreted cavity performs - Can be stimulated - Lifecycle: circular arrays - Radially gastrovascular cavity via circulatory function todischarge asexually - In polyps: muscles + gastrovascular cavity act as hyrostatic CNIDARIA symmetrical Gastrodermis cells diffusion in cnidarians cnidocyte batteries reproducing polyp skeleton and provide a mean of movement - Tissue level release enzymes, through - Gas exchange via - Sessile: cells in stage alternates - Anemones (anthozoans) longitudinal retractor muscles organization and cilia in gut mix epidermis diffusion epithelia that detect with sexual and parietal muscles in the septa that shorten the column. - 2cell layers with contents or in and respond to light, medusoid stage Circular muscles around the column that lengthen the gelatinous matrix Nutrients enter gastrovasc chemical, mechanical that produces a animal. Circular muscles in the oral disc and tentacles - Simple tube shaped nutritive muscular ular cavity stimuli planula larvae - In medusa: epidermal muscles predominate, especially body with tentacles cells by phagocytosis - Motile: statocysts - Larvae heavily around the bell margin + mouth and pinocytosis and (detects body tilt) ciliated & non - - Two body forms: undergo intracellular and ocelli (simple feeding medusa & polyp digestion eye) - Polyp = benthic - Food particles - Medusa = pelagic captured by nematocysts on the tentacles and are ingested at the mouth and conveyed to the stomach through the manubrium - Medusoid - - - (dominant, nearly square) and polypoid forms Class Cubozoantacles hollow - Sting is very toxic - Box jellyfish - Jellyfish - Asexual Class - Medusoid reproduction by dominant strobilization Scyphozoaolyploid small and inconspicuous or absent - Asexual bethic polyps, sexual planktonic medusa - Polyps are colonial, Class Hydrozoarconnected and sepcialized - Gastrodermal tissue lacks nematocysts - Anemones, corals, sea pens - Solitary or colonial - No medusoid stage - No cnidocil - Muscular pharynx terminating in the Subphylum mouthzoa - Mesenteries / septapartition GCV - Stony coral and sea anemones - 6fold symmetry; 6 pairs of mesenteries - Colonial, Subclass hexacorallia corals - Calcium carbonate external skeletons - Soft corals, sea fans and sea whips - 8 fold symmetry, 8 tentacles and primary mesenteries - Polymorphic Subclass Ocolonieslia - Internal skeletons (proteinaceous or calcareous) PLATYHELMINTHES ANATOMY NUTRITION EXCRETION GAS EXCHANGE / NERVOUS SYSTEM REPRODUCTION MOVEMENT OSMOREGULATION - Bilaterally symmetrical Blind sac gut (if Protonephr Gas exchange = - Triploblastic there is one) idia (flame diffusion - Acoelomate No anus cells or No specialized - Protostome like (spiral, solenocytes respiratory organs or determinate, mouth) at ends of circulatory systems - Organ level tubes that Flat = high SA to vol organization connects to ratio - No anus, coelom, outside respiratory or thorugh circulatorysystem excretory PLATY- Epidermis  pore mesoderm  gut lining - Flat - Free living Predatory Diffuse nerve net to - Simultaneous Locomotion: multiciliated epidermal cells; move by - Benthic Mouth, pharynx, cerebral ganglion with hermaphrodites secreting mucus and beating cilia - Have duo-glands (stick gastrovascular cavity longitudinal nerve - Reciprocal sperm Longitudinal, circumferential and dorsoventral muscles / unstick), rhabdites (incomplete gut) cords (ladder) transfer Pedal waves and rhabdoids (mucus) Straight, 3-branched Possess eye spots,cells - Penis fencing (no or multibranched that respond to one wants to be guts chemical and the mom) Protrusible pharynx mechanical stimuli - Also asexual  Class Turbellaria Proboscis spears the Statocysts (body regeneration/fissi food orientation) on Extra & intracellular Regenerative abilities idgestion  neoblasts (undifferentiated cells) - Tape worms Lacks mouth, Cerebral ganglion: Proglottids = sexual - Endoparasites digestive tract  nerve ring reproduction  - Body covered by absorption aroundscolex conians both male tegument Folding = inc SA Paied longitudinal and female - Scolex = anterior hook cords reproductive attachment organ Sense organs reduced systems, can be Tacile receptors in fertilized from self scolex or neighboring cestode Class Cestoda Eggs transferred with feces Oncospehre larvae  intermediate host encyst bladderworm - Haptor – posterior Oral suckers reduced attachement organ or absent - Ectoparasites (usually Class of fish) - Body covered in Monogenea tegument - Endoparaistes, 2/3 Mouth opening into Ladder like, with Hermaphrodites Use muscles to move hosts blind-ended bilobed paired nerve cords Cross fertilization Have adhesive organs or suckers to attach to host - Tegument digestive tract and transverse 1 or more - Oval or leaf shaped connectives lavalstages Cerebral ganglion with Often infect snails 2 lobes Miracidium  Sense organs: tactile sporocyst  Class Trematoda reeptors cercaria (suckers),chemorecept metacercaria ors (reduced), Ocelli ANNELIDA ANATOMY NUTRITION EXCRETION GAS EXCHANGE / NERVOUS SYSTEM REPRODUCTION MOVEMENT OSMOREGULATION - Bilaterians Gut is linear and Diffusion Diffusion of gases Cerebral ganglion Lotrocophore Circular and longitudinal muscles - Triploblastic unsegmented Metanephridia (limited to moist Ventral nerve cord larvae Contract muscles in one segment can achievelocalized - Organs Food moved Coelomic fluid environments) – advanced deformation - Coelomate through gut by contains metabolic Pair of nerve cords - Protostome cilia/muscular wastes – primitive - Pairs of chitinous contractions Nephrostome Segmented ganglia setae Primarily Nephridiopore – Tactile, vibration, - Metameric extracellular urine secreted light, chemo segmentation digestion Connect to gonads receptors (identical) Nutrient – discharge Statocysts ANNELIDAseparated by septa distribution gametes Eyes detect canges (mesodermally made possibly Most segments in light intensity derived – by closed contain two peritoneum) circulatory nephridia, each of - Epidermis _ system which is open at protective cuticle + both ends setae (metanephridia) - Pair of lateral out- Errant species Most dioecious, Back locks – prevent backsliding foldings of the body have protrusible some Longitudinal muscles then contract , while the circular wall = parapodia  pharynx – hermaphrodites muscles in these segments relax highly vascularized, toothed. Live in Epitoky  This dilates the worms anterior segments thin, flat – gas burrows, morphological The anterior end is thus firmly anchored in the substratum exchange includes changes in and the more posterior segments then can be drawn Prostomium – detritus/filter preparation for forward by contracting the longitudinal muscles anterior portion of feeders, reproduction (good body (slight omnivore swimmers) cephalizatoin) Trocophore – Class Polychaetaanatomy: Sedentary plankotrophic, segments, septa, gut, species: motile larva blood vessels, particular or Can exhibit nephridia, brain, filter feeders – parentalcare nerve cord lack protrusible Asexual – pharynx genetically identical ramets - No parapodia or Modified diffusion diffusion Hermaphroditic Locomotion same as polychaetes anterior sensory esophagus: crop Clitellum secretes structures stores food and cocoon within - Havecomplete gizzard grinds which embryos septa food develop. Also - Fewer setae Typhosole: fold secretes mucus in intestine to that assists sperm increase transfer, produces Class Citellata absorption albumen. Subclass Oligochaeta Clitellum leaves the owrm so cocoon develops once off worm - Leeches Ectoparasitic Diffusion Diffusion Hermaphrodites Locomote over solid substrates by using suckers as - Posterior sucker Hirudin = nephridia Hemoglobin present Internal temporary anchors - Lack parapodia anticoagulant fertilization - Anterior sensory Concentrate Large gonads structures and store blood Clitellum only - Lack setae in crop visible during - Coelom not diverculae (out breeding season separated by septa; pockets of gut) Lacking trocophore filled with Digestion Develop in cocoon mesenchyme extremely slow No asexual - Coelomic fluid has No digesetive reproduction circulatory role enzymes, Class Citellata Subclass Hirudineinstead got bacteria to do it NEMATODA ANATOMY NUTRITION EXCRETION GAS EXCHANGE / NERVOUS SYSTEM REPRODUCTION MOVEMENT OSMOREGULATION - Bilaterally No specialized Diffusion Anterior brain - Dioceous Cuticle fibers inelastic  maint
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