EXAM I STUDY GUIDE
1. Define: microbiology, virology, mycology, parasitology, protozoology, phycology, immunology,
epidemiology, etiology, pathology.
2. List several reasons the study of microbiology is important.
3. List early microbiologists and briefly describe their contributions to the development of the field
4. Describe/explain each of the differences between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. Give
examples of each type.
5. Name the 6 kingdoms of classification. List the general characteristics and examples of
microorganisms in each kingdom. In which kingdoms are the eukaryotic and prokaryotic
microorganisms classified? In which kingdom are viruses classified?
6. Describe scientific nomenclature. How should a scientific name be properly written? What type
characteristics can a scientific name indicate about an organism?
7. What is a bacterial colony? How does the appearance of bacterial colonies produced by
different bacteria vary?
8. In what unit are bacteria measured? What is the average cell size of bacteria?
9. Describe three cell shapes. How does each cell shape and their arrangement vary?
10. Structure of the bacterial cell: identify parts of the cell from a drawing, describe function each
part, describe chemical composition each part.
11. Describe/explain the chemical structure of murein and how the structure relates to its function.
Describe the differences in the structure of the cell walls of Gram positive bacteria, Gram
negative bacteria and acid fast bacteria.
12. Describe the structure/properties of phospholipids. Describe the bilayered structure of the cell
membrane and how the structure relates to its function. How do nutrients/wastes move across
the cell membrane?
13. How do bacteria reproduce? Is this process asexual or sexual? Describe this process (in
detail). Define generation time. What is average bacterial generation time?
14. How is bacterial growth expressed? Draw the bacterial growth curve. How is it derived?
Identify the phases. Describe ( in detail) the activities in each phase. Why study the growth
15. Temperature requirements: How does temperature affect bacterial growth? Define optimum.
Define mesophiles, psychrophiles, thermophiles. Where might you find these organisms
16. Describe pH requirements for bacterial growth: optimum pH, neutrophile, acidophile,
alkalinophiles. Where might you find these organisms growing? How does excess acid or
alkaline pH affect the rate of bacterial growth?
17. Oxygen requirements: define aerobes, anaerobes, facultative, microaerophilic. Why is oxygen
required for growth?
18. Why is H O required for growth? How does an increase in osmolarity affect bacterial growth?
Of what practical use is this? Define halophiles.
19. How does light (UV, radiation) affect bacterial growth? Do any bacteria require light for growth?
Describe a practical application involving the use of UV light/radiation.
20..List basic nutritional requirements of bacteria. How do bacteria obtain their nutrients?
Define: autotrophs, heterotrophs, saprophytes, parasites.
21. Describe the characteristics of proteins, carbohydrates, lipids.
22. Define: metabolism, catabolism, anabolism, pathway.
23. Briefly describe the two metabolic pathways: photosynthesis and chemosynthesis.
Define: photoautotrophs, photoheterotrophs, chemoautotrophs, chemohe