Term for exam 1

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PSYCH 1100
Thomas Kondzielewski

Psychology Terms Chapter 1 Psychology: The scientific study study of behaviour and mental processes. Scientific observation:An empirical investigation structured to answer questions about the world in a systematic inter subjective fashion. (Observations can be reliably confirmed by multiple observers). Research Method:Asystematic approach to answering scientific questions. Description: In scientific research, the process of naming and classifying. Understanding: In psychology, understanding is achieved when the causes of a behavior can be stated. Prediction:An ability to accurately forecast behavior. Control:Altering conditions that influence behavior. Critical thinking (in psychology):A type of reflection involving the support of beliefs through scientific explanation and observation. Pseudopsychology: Any false and unscientific system of beliefs and practices that is offered as an explanation of behavior. Superstition: Unfounded belief held without evidence or in spite of falsifying evidence. UncriticalAcceptance: The tendency to believe claims because they seem true or because it would be nice if they were true. Confirmation Bias: The Tendency to remember or notice information that fits one's expectations but to forget discrepancies. Barnum effect: The tendency to consider a personal description accurate if it is stated in very general terms. Scientific method: A form of critical thinking based on careful measurement and controlled observation. Hypothesis:Astatement of the predicted outcome of an experiment or an educated guess about the relationship between variables. Operational definition: Defining a scientific concept by stating the specific actions or procedures used to measure it. For example. “hunger” might be defined as “the number of hours of food deprivation”. Theory: Asystem of ideas designed to interrelate concepts and facts in a way that summarizes existing data predicts future observations. Stimulus:Any physical energy sensed by an organism. Introspection: to look within; to examine one's own thoughts, feelings, or sensations. Structuralism: The school of thought concerned with analyzing sensations and personal experience into basic elements. Functionalism: The school of psychology concerned with how behavior and mental abilities help people adapt to either environments Natural selection: Darwin's theory that evolution favors those plants and animals best suited to their living conditions. Behaviorism: The school of psychology that emphasizes the study of overt, observable behavior. Response:Any muscular action, glandular activity, or other identifiable aspects of behavior. Cognitive behaviorism:An approach that combines behavioral principles with cognition (perception, thinking, anticipation) to explain behavior Gestalt psychology: A school of psychology emphasizing the study of thinking, learning, and perception in whole units, not by analysis into parts. Unconscious: contents of the mind that are beyond awareness, especially impulses and desires not directly known to a person. Repression: The unconscious process by which memories, thoughts or impulses are held out of awareness. Psychoanalysis:AFreudian approach to psychotherapy emphasizing the exploration unconscious conflicts. Neo-Freudian:Apsychologist who accepts the broad features of Freud's theory but has revised the theory to fit his or her own concepts. Psychodynamic theory:Any theory of behavior that emphasizes internal conflicts, motives, and unconscious forces. Humanism: An approach to psychology that focuses on human experience, problems, potentials, and ideals. Determinism: The idea that all behavior has prior causes that would completely explain one's choices and actions if all such causes were known. Free will: The idea that human beings are capable of freely making choices or decisions. Self-actualization: the ongoing process of fully developing one's personal potential. Gender bias in research:A tendency for females and female issues to be underrepresented in research, psychological or otherwise. Biological perspective: The attempt to explain behavior in terms of underlying biological principles. Neuroscience: The broader field of biopsychologists and others who study the brain and nervous system, such as biologists and biochemists. Evolutionary psychology: The study of how human evolution and genetics might explain our current behavior. Psychological perspective: The traditional view that behavior is shaped by psychological processes occurring at the level of the individual. Positive psychology: the study of human strengths, virtues, and effective functioning. Sociocultural perspective: The focus on the importance of social and cultural contexts in influencing the behavior of individuals. Cultural relativity: The idea that behavior must be judged relative to the values of the culture in which it occurs. Social norms: Rules that define acceptable and expected behavior for members of a group. Psychologist:Aperson highly trained in the methods, factual knowledge, and theories of psychology. Animal Model: In research, an animal whose behavior is used to derive principles that may apply to human behavior. Clinical psychologist:A psychologist who specializes
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