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PSYC-223 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Synaptic Pruning, Teratology, Visual Acuity

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PSYC 223
Chapter 1 Questions
Compare and contrast preferential listening with conditioned head turn.
Describe and give examples of two types of systematic observation.
Classical conditioning falls under which type of theory?
Describe what a critical or sensitive period is and explain what would happen if
learning does not occur during that period. Which terminology is thought to be more
accurate and why?
Explain how you would test whether a baby recognizes a particular face.
Briefly describe 4 key themes in developmental psychology. Where does each class of
modern theories fall on each theme?
If you wanted to study the development of memory over time but didn’t have the
resources to conduct a very long-term study, what study design would you use and
Which infant methods are not possible to use with 3-month-old infants and why?
What is the difference between structured and naturalistic observation and what are
the advantages/disadvantages of each?
Describe the habituation method and explain when we would use it. What are its
advantages and disadvantages? What additional controls should be considered?
Describe three challenges that we often encounter when testing infants and children.
Describe conditioned head turn using a specific example.
Compare and contrast the nativist, constructivist, and empiricist theoretical positions.
Explain what the competence-performance distinction is and why it may arise in
developmental research.
Design an experiment that would assess whether or not infants can distinguish between
different object categories.
Under which circumstances are infants likely to pay attention to a familiar voice vs. a
new (unfamiliar)?
When trying to assess whether babies can discriminate between two different faces,
what method would you use for a 3-month-old vs. a 6-month-old?
Compare and contrast preferential looking with preferential listening.
Explain the differences between longitudinal, cross-sectional, and longitudinal-
sequential approaches including one pro and one con of each design type.
Name and describe each of the classical theories in development.
PSYC 223
Chapter 2 & 3 Questions
Define genotype and phenotype and give an example that illustrates the difference
between the two.
What is the nature vs. nurture debate? Define it. How can nature influence nurture?
How can nurture influence nature? Provide an example for each.
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Describe the following reflexes: Babinski & rooting, and explain why these reflexes
What is a teratogen? At what time during a pregnancy is teratogen exposure going to
have worse effects (earlier or later) and why?
Identify a specific teratogen and describe an outcome that can result from exposure to
it. Then explain the mechanism by which this outcome may occur.
Describe the mechanisms by which teratogens can exert their effect.
Describe the 5 principles of teratogens and provide an example for each principle.
Explain the significance or purpose of each of the infant reflexes.
PSYC 223
Chapter 4 & 5 Questions
Explain what kangaroo care is, and describe its benefits.
Explain the difference between experience-expectant and experience-dependent
What phenomenon can occur as a result of a lack of synaptic pruning? What is the most
common form and why?
Define acuity and explain the procedure that is used to test acuity in infants.
Define perceptual narrowing and describe a task that measures it.
Provide two reasons why visual acuity is so poor at birth.
Describe how you would test infants’ colour perception.
What are hedonic and aversive expressions? Give an example of when a baby would use
these expressions.
Name and describe the 3 different types of growth.
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