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Final

CHEM 110 Study Guide - Final Guide: Complementary Colors, Spectrochemical Series, Extrinsic Semiconductor


Department
Chemistry
Course Code
CHEM 110
Professor
Ariel Fenster
Study Guide
Final

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Chem 110 Alanna Houston
FINAL REVIEW
- E = hf
- KE elex=ctron = 1/2msubeu^2 = hf-hfo = hv-psi
- M,s,kg,j
- For absorption, ni is less than nf
- For emission, ni is greater than nf
- Rsubn = n^2asubo
- Know the energy corresponding to photon energy: delta e = 2.179 FINISH
- Memorize the bohr model for all h like species
- Ionization energy equation
- DeBroglie equation predicts that matter should have waves equation
- Uncertainty principle
oH is planck’s constant
- Know the quantum numbers
oN is the principal quantum number – greater than zero
oL is the angular momentum quantum number (0 to n-1)
oL gives which subshell (0- s etc.)
oMl magnetic quantum number (2l + 1) – number of electrons in the orbital
oEach l number gets two electrons
oMs spin quantum number +1/2 or –1/2For paired electrons in an orbital,
magnetic fields cancel
oSpin up: south is upwards but in spin down, the north is on top
oFor unpaired single electrons in an orbital, there is a net magnetic field
(paramagnetic)
- Electrons occupy orbitals in a way that minimizes the energy of the atom
- No two electrons in an atom can have the same set of four quantum numbers (Pauli
Exclusion Principle – know definition of this)
- Memorize diagonal drawing
- Electrons will occupy orbitals of the same energy single (unpaired) the single
electron in these degenerate (same energy) orbitals will have the same spin state
(Hund’s Rule)
- Once orbitals of the same energy are filled singly, additional electrons can be added
with the opposite spin
- We choose to write lower n to the left instead of filling order because ionized
electrons are usually pulled from the orbital with the higher n (which may not be
the last one filled as in this case)
- The exceptions: for extra stability for filled and half-filled d orbitals
- In Cr, 5 in 3d FINISH
- Metals lose electrons to get to noble gas
- Non-metals tend to gain electrons to get to noble gas and therefore negative ions
- Valence electrons shield each other to a much smaller ectent
- Putting in valence electrons so S ~ constant while z increases therefore Zeff
increases and radius decreases
- S block and p block radius increases down and increases across
- Cations are smaller than the parent atoms
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Chem 110 Alanna Houston
- Cations lose electrons but z stays the same
- For isoelectronic cations, the more positive charge, the smaller the ionic radius (z is
different) ** They have the same number of electrons
- Anions are larger than the parent atoms
- Anions gain electrons but z stays constant
- For isoelectronic ions…the more negative charge, the larger the ionic radius
- Ionization energy: energy required to strip an electron from a gaseous state atom (or
ion)
oNot spontaneous…requires energy input
oOne right before the big jump is the one
oOpposite trends to size
- Electron Affinity is the energy change when an electron is added to a gaseous state
atom (or ion)
oBecomes less negative (lower affinity) down a group
oNEGATIVEthe larger the affinity, the larger the negative value
oLook at the trends diagram summary
- Determine electron configuration to see if there are unpaired electrons (ADD
PROBLEMS)
NUCLEAR CHEMISTRY
- Look at half life and emission stuff (alpha, beta, gamma)
- Bottom is atomic number – number of protons
- Top is the mass number, the number of protons and neutrons
- HALF LIFE - do practice problems
- Carbon 14 dating
oHalf life = 5370 years
- Ln(Nt/No) = -k x t
- K = 0.693/tsub(1/2)
- Carbon cycle: Living system: C14/C12 is constant. Dead system: C14/C12 is
decreasing
- Atmosphere: look at diagram
- E = mc^2
- 1 amu = 1.6606x10^-24 g (MAKE SURE YOU CONVERT THIS TO KG)
- 1 amu = 1.4924 x 10^-10 Joules
- 1 amu = 931.5 MeV
- Number you get for deltaE is per nucleon
- Multiply by Na to get it per mol / nucleus
- Divide by molecular weight to get it per gram
- Go over fission and fusion theory and reactors
- Know Lewis structures
- Formal charge is the number of valence electrons from all atoms minus the number
of lone pair electrons minus half the number of bonding electrons
- Least electronegative element is usually in the centre
- Carbon atoms are always central atoms
- Symmetrical structures are usually preferred
- Best resonance structure has the smallest formal charges
- VSEPR theory KNOW
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