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Final

Anat final.docx

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Department
Anatomy & Cell Biology
Course
ANAT 316
Professor
All Professors
Semester
Summer

Description
Anat final 1. THE 12th RIB HAS ONLY ONE OF THE FOLLOWING ITEMS:e a. groove b. angle c. neck d. tubercle e. head 2. INDICATE THE WRONG ITEM:e a. the orientation of the body of the 1st rib is different from the rest of the ribs b. the 12TH rib lacks a costotransverse articulation c. the 1st rib has 2 tubercles d. the 12th rib has a cartilaginous cap; which is equivalent to the costal cartilages of the upper ribs e. the anterior portion of the body of the 4th rib is directed laterally, inferiorly, and posteriorly 3. WHICH ITEM IS WRONG?e a. generally the distance between the tubercle and the angle of the ribs increases as we go down the chest b. the obliquest rib is the 9th c. the farthest point of the ribs from the midline is on the 8th d. the longest rib is the 7th e. the upward slope of the costal cartilages increases as we go up the chest 4. WHICH OF THESE LIGAMENTS CONNECTS THE TUBERCLE OF THE RIB TO THE TRANSVERSE PROCESS OF THE VERTEBRA?d a. the superior ( the suspensory) costotransverse b. the costotransverse (the medial costotransverse) c. the radiate d. the lateral costotransverse e. the intertransverse 5. REGARDING THE STERNAL ANGLE: INDICATE THE WRONG STATEMENT:e a. it could be seen b. it could be felt c. it is important for numbering the ribs and the intercostal spaces d. it is at the manubriosternal junction (joint) e. it is at the level of the 3rd sternocostal junction (joint) 6. REGARDING CHEST WALL ARTICULATIONS: INDICATE THE WRONG ITEM:e a. the costotransverse joint and the joint between the head of the rib and the vertebrae are mechanically associated b. the 7th sternocostal joint is synovial c. the costotransverse joint is synovial d. the joint between the head of the rib and the vertebrae is synovial e. the 1st sternocostal joint is synovial 7. INICATE THE CORRECT STATEMENT:d a. the 3rd rib head has only one articulating facet like the rest of the ribs from 2 to 9 b. the spinous process of a thoracic vertebra is sloping upwards c. the 5th costal cartilage contributes to the formation of the costal margin d. the transverse processes of the thoracic vertebrae are sloping upwards and posteriorly e. the 1st rib has a well formed inferior costal groove similar to the 12th rib 8.WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING IS NOT A FEATURE OF THE FIRST RIB?b THE FIRST RIB IS MISSING ONE OF THE FOLLOWING ITEMS: A- SCALENE TUBERCLE B- RIB ANGLE C-SCALENE CREST D-GROOVE FOR THE SUBCLAVIAN ARTERY E-A HEAD WITH ONE ARTICULAR FACET 9.INDICATE THE RIGHT STATEMENT:c pi d A- THE DISTANCE BETWEEN THE TUBERCLE AND THE ANGLE OF ALL RIBS IS THE SAME B- THE OBLIQUITY OF THE RIBS INCREASES THE HIGHER WE GO UP THE CHEST C- THE FRONT PART OF THE 7TH RIB IS DIRECTED ANTERIORLY, INFERIORLY, AND MEDIALLY D- THE 12TH RIB IS MISSING A NECK E- THE ANGLE OF THE RIB IS LOCATED ON THE FRONT PART OF THE RIB The diaphragm 1-THE I.V.C. PIERCES THE DIAPHRAGM AT THE LEVEL OF WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING?c A. T 4 B. T 6 C. T 8 D. T 10 E. L1 2- ALL THE FOLLOWING MUSCLES MIGHT CAUSE ELEVATION OF THE RIBS EXCEPT: A. the anterior scalene (d) B. the sternocleidomastoid C. the diaphragm D. the intercostal part of the internal intercostal muscles E. the external intercostal muscles 3- CONCERNING THE DIAPHRAGM: WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING ITEMS IS RIGHT ? c A. it takes origin from the costal margin B. it is formed only of two parts: costal and lumbar (vertebral) C. it its costal part is attached to the posterior aspect of the costochondral junction of some ribs D. the esophagus (the oesophagus) is traversing it at the level of T12 E. its central tendon is separate from the pericardium (the fibrous pericardium) 4- INDICATE THE WRONG STATEMENT: d A. The diaphragm contracts mildly during resting (tranquil) respiration B. the phrenic nerve is a mixed nerve C. the central tendon descends by the contraction of the diaphragm D. the lower ribs are depressed by the contraction of the diaphragm E. Irritation of the under side of a hemidiaphragm might cause pain over the skin of the corresponding shoulder SOME THE BASE OF THE HEART IS MOSTLY FORMED BY: a. the left auricle b. the right atrium c. the right ventricle d. the left atrium e. the left ventricle 9. INDICATE THE WRONG STATEMENT a. the anterior surface of the heart is mainly formed by the right ventricle b. the base of the heart faces posteriorly c. the apex of the heart belongs to the left ventricle d. accumulating fluid in the pericardial sac could force the parietal pericardium to distend e. the visceral pericardium covers the roots of the big vessels 10. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING IS NOT A FEATURE OF THE RIGHT ATRIUM a. the fossa ovalis b. an opening for the inferior vena cava c. an opening for the superior vena cava d. the septomarginal band e. an opening for the coronary sinus 11. THE CORONARY SINUS RUNS IN THE a. the anterior interventricular groove b. the posterior (the inferior) interventricular groove c. the posterior (inferior) part of the left atrioventricular groove d. the posterior (inferior) part of the right atrioventricular groove e. the anterior part of the right atrioventricular groove 12. INDICATE THE WRONG STATEMENT a. each chamber of the heart has a ridged part and another which is not ridged b. the interventricular groove intersects with the inferior border of the heart at a point just to the right of its apex c. the SAN is found in the right atrium d. the AVN is found in the right ventricle e. the visceral and the parietal layers of the pericardium are continuous at its line of reflection 13. INDICATE THE SPECIFIC ARTERY SUPPLYING THE ANTERIOR HALF OF THE INTERVENRICULAR SEPTUM A. the right coronary B. the posterior interventricular C. the left coronary D. the circumflex E. the anterior interventricular 14. IN NEARLY 100% OF THE POPULATION THE RIGHT CORONARY ARTERY SUPPLIES A. the S A N B. the A V N (65%) C. the apex of the heart D. the anterior half of the interventricular septum E. the posterior half of the interventricular septum 15. INDICATE THE WRONG ASSOCIATION A. irritation under the diaphragm: pain over the corresponding shoulder B. injury of T1: wasting of the muscles of the corresponding hand C. damage of the upper part of the thoracic sympathetic trunk: failure to dilate the corresponding pupil D. accumulation of fluid in the pericardial sac: tamponade E. occlusion of the circumflex artery: compromised blood supply to the anterior half of the interventricular septum FINAL REVIEW QUESTION Rib cage - the anterior portion of the rib have 1 part: the midaxillary---costochondral junction (AIM) - the posterior portion of the rib have 2 parts: the tubercle--angle part (LIP) and the angle-- midaxillary part (ALI) Heart -THE BASE OF THE HEART IS MOSTLY FORMED BY: LEFT ATRIUM - INDICATE THE WRONG STATEMENT:accumulating fluid in the pericardial sac could force the parietal pericardium to distend, it is wrong because the pericardium cannot extend, and accumulating fluid will press heart and block venous return. - the anterior surface of the heart is mainly formed by the right ventricle - the base of the heart faces posteriorly - the apex of the heart belongs to the left ventricle - the visceral pericardium covers the roots of the big vessels - the fossa ovalis, opening for the inferior vena cava,opening for the superior vena cava and the opening for the coronary sinus are features of the right atrium - the septomarginal band is not a feature of the right atrium, it is a feature of the left ventricle. -THE CORONARY SINUS RUNS IN the posterior (inferior) part of the left atrioventricular groove -anterior interventricular artery divided from the left coronary artery, and it supply the ant 1/2 of the interventricular septum -left coronary artery is very short, it divided into anterior interventricular artery and circumflex artery. Circumflex artery supple the posterior part of the heart -the right coronary artery supple the posterior inferior part of the interventricular groove. - each chamber of the heart has a ridged part and another which is not ridged - the interventricular groove intersects with the inferior border of the heart at a point just to the right of its apex - the SAN (100% of the population) and the AVN are found in the right atrium, and they are suppled by the right coronary artery - the visceral and the parietal layers of the pericardium are continuous at its line of reflection - irritation under the diaphragm: pain over the corresponding shoulder - injury of T1: wasting of the muscles of the corresponding hand - damage of the upper part of the thoracic sympathetic trunk: failure to dilate the corresponding pupil - accumulation of fluid in the pericardial sac: tamponade -occlusion of the circumflex artery will not compromised blood supply to the anterior half of the interventricular septum because it supply the posterior aspect of the heart. ABDOMINAL PART - the diaphragm goes like a dome. The left part is at T4 and the right part is at T5 - the inferior epigastric artery rises from the external iliac artery, and it runs deeply in the lower part of the abdominal wall, landmark for the diagnosis of inguinal herniae. - the internal oblique's most anterior fiber arching (curving) above the spermatic cord before inserting onto the pubic crest by the conjoined tendo -the transverse abdominis has the same origin as internal oblique, but in addition, it also arises from the inner aspect of the costochondral junctions of the lower 6 ribs interdigitating with the costal part of the diaphragm. - the transverse abdominis also curving above the spermatic cord with the internal oblique. They insert onto the pubic crest by conjointed tendon. - a hernia is a sac + contents + covering - internal oblique is the strongest muscle. It connected to the external oblique of the contralateral side. When internal contract with pelvis fixed, the trunk will ipsilateral rotate. Or when external contract with pelvis fixed, it will rotate the trunk on the contralateral side. - rectus abd is the only muscle that responsible for the 1 30 degree flexion of the trunk from supine to sitting up position. The other 60 degree done by rectus abd and iliopsoas - bilateral contraction of the quadratus lumborum fiber that are insered onto the rib has th respiratory function. Pull on the 12 ribs stretching the lumbar part of the diaphragm, this allow the most efficient work -with the thorax fixed, unilateral contraction of the quadratus lumborum will flexed the ipsilateral pelvis up up (belly dancing). - unilateral contraction will ipsilateral flexed the vertebral column - bilateral contraction will increase lumbar bracing during weight lifting -unilateral contraction: t
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