Disasters precipitated by stars to ancient peoples. Disaster - realization of risk a hazardous event affecting a community in an adverse way such that essential social structures and functions are disrupted. Statement that a particular natural hazard will occur: with a given probability, during a certain time frame. Mitigation - efforts to reduce or minimize the effects of natural hazards on a community. Risk of death (highest to lowest) - car accident, plane crash, hurricane, tornado, lighting, earthquake, asteroid, volcano. This requires a statistical approach such as probabilities, since we don"t fully understand many natural processes. The scientific study of the solid earth including the materials that makeup the planet and the processes that shape the planet. Use of the geological environment for waste disposal in order to minimize problems of contamination and pollution. Every year 250 million people are affected by natural disasters. International communities spent 3 billion dollars to help mitigate the impacts of these disasters.