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Lab 4 - Exam Review (Procedures).docx

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Biology (Sci)
BIOL 111
Suzanne Gray

LAB 4: Nonseed Plants, Gymnosperms and Angiosperms Non-seed Plants: no vascular tissue  Alteration of Generations  Sperm that swims to the egg Liverworts: presence of gemmae (special structures in vegetative reproduction) - Allows plants to persist in dry habitats Male and Female Moss Gameotophytes:  Antheridium produces sperm while the archegonia produces the egg  Sporophyte grows attached to female gamtophyte  Calyptra: hairy cap on sporophyte (haploid)  Peristome: a ring of teeth like projections at the mouth of the capsule The Ferns:  True roots, stems, leaves (sporophyte generation)  Fertilization is dependent on water Fern Sporophyte:  Fronds (leaves)  Horizontal stem (rhizome)  Pinnae venation of leaves (outlines of vascular bundles)  Sori: brownish spots on the underside of the leaf (found at the apex)  Covered with indusium; umbrella like outgrowth of epidermis LAB 4: Nonseed Plants, Gymnosperms and Angiosperms The Female Cone: one spore makes female, the other makes male megasporangium(2n)   neck  Nucleus Egg cell   Archeogonium Megagametophyte  Female Fern Gametophyte: Following germination of the spores, a green filamentous structure is formed, that soon grows further ina gametophyte called a prothallus.  Rhizoids: absorbing structures  Apical notch: cell division occurs  Antheridia: among rhizoids  Archegonia: among apical notch Fern Reproduction:  Multiflaggellated sperm are released from the antheridium and sperm is chemically attracted to the archegonium  One sperm unites with one egg; producing a young fern plant called a sporophyte Gymnosperms:  Seed Plants  No need for external water during fertilization, as the sperm is blown by wind as pollen to the egg  Ovules and seeds are exposed and not protected within additional tissues (naked seed)  Divided into four phyla: Cycadophyta (palm-like trees), Ginkgophya (only one species), Coniferophyta (cone bearing trees), Gnetophyta (peculiar plants) LAB 4: Nonseed Plants, Gymnosperms and Angiosperms Coniferophyta:  Adapted to grow in dry (xerophytic) environments  Needle-like leaves have a heavy cuticle  Thick epidermis  Deeply sunken stomata (overhanging cells to slow down transpiration)  Evergreen Male Reproductive Structures:  Leaves are called microsporophylls  Two pollen sacs (microsporangia) on each microsporophyll  Microspores develop into haploid microgametophytes  Further shed into pollen Female Reproductive Structures:  Each ovule contains a megasporangium surrounded by integument  An open in the integument, the microphyle, is where the pollen grain enters  Produces a haploid female megagametophyte Seed:  The ovule becomes a seed  Seed coat derives from the integument  Sporophyte embryo is surrounded by tissue derived from the megagametophyte Angiosperms and Gymnosperms:  Reduced Gametophyte generations  Gymnosperms = cones  Angiosperms = flowers  Seed plant is completely dependent on the sporophyte  The sporophyte is independent  Heterospores (micro and macro) giving rise to microgametophytes and megagametophyes Angiosperms:  Seed plants with ovules enclosed within an ovary  Ovary persists to become fruit  Reproductive structures are contained within the flower Monocots Eudicots One cotyledon Two cotyledon Veins in leaves are parallel Veins in leaves are netlike Multiples of three flower pars Multiples of four or five flowering parts Primary vascular bundles form a ring in Primary vascular bundles radiate from the root the center in the root LAB 4: Nonseed Plants, Gymnosperms and Angiosperms Primary vascular bundles are scattered Primary vascular bundles are in a ring in in the stem the stem  Shoot system: stem and leaf  Each flower consists of four organs: sepals and petals (sterile) and stamens and carpels (fertile) The Root System (Eudicot): Epidermis: protects the root and absorbs water and minerals Root Hai
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