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Biology (Sci)
BIOL 307
Simon Reader

BIOL 307 FINAL NOTES 4/9/2012 7:07:00 AM Tinbergens Four Questions: Proximate causation causes of a trait during a single lifetime (mechanism lesion studies for area of brain, development ontogeny babies 1 period or learn all the time); ultimate causation evolutionary causes of a trait (function affect reproductive success is it loudest or most complicated song that increases success, evolution how did it evolve - phylogeny) History: Darwin + = instinct anecdotes, emotions/intelligence instinct and tried to show animals can produce human behavior (Clever Hans) Behaviorist (nurture) revolution = experiments on learning Ethology (nature) not capable of quantitative predictions = observations and experiments on instinct; chicks and red spots extreme versions better therefore basis for sex selective traits; lamb/mother imprint expt by Lorenz control because 0 experience behave ecol/sociobiol = cost/benefit predictions on behavioral strategies crash of ethology because of bee dance! altruism Old vs. new paradigm: aggression innate but can be changed with reward/punishment -> depends on relation and immediate cost/benefits for defense (kin relation); animal wouldnt leave site with food left for another -> diminishing returns at one site with unexpected food at others; courtship innate and species-specificcourt in most adaptive way -> alternative strategies that decrease benefits of those using main mode Behavioural Ecology: function use of evol and evol processes to explain adaptive significance of behavior patterns, predict ecological patterns, empirical/comparative analyses relating behavior to envt Problems in studying behavior: anthropomorphism (animals as people), anthropocentrism (visual tests for rats when smells better), anecdotes (single observation used as evidence), design and interpret studies (consideration of alternate hypotheses) Keep in mind parsimony most simple explanation unless not possible Ethogram: catalogue of behavior patterns of a species Data reliability: Biases caused by observers Expectancy effects Clever Hans Disturbance effect (hide video etc) Demonstrator difference/influence Inter/Intra observer reliability 3 criteria for adaptive evolution: heritable variation in traits, variations in rep success, trait correlated with +/- success (without this last one, can get evolution, just called neutral evolution) Implications of Evol theory: lifetime rep success (RS), not survival, drives natural selection; fitness is relative RS alleles dont have to be best for f to increasejust better than competing therefore traits dont act for the good of the speciesjust increase RS; group selection likely to be weak in comparison to indiv selection *selfish mutants can invade Adaptation: character favoured by natural selection for its effectiveness in a particular role diff from adaptive behavior: that increases rep success ADAPTIVE? Yes No ADAPTATION? Yes Current Adaptation Past Adaptation No Exaptation Dysfunctional Byproduct Niche construction: active role of behavior in ecol. earthworms change soil and that soil is inherited by next gen of worms (environmental evolution) Critique of Pinker: multiple meanings of the terms innate and instinct Developmental plasticity (gene-envt) same gen and depending on where you plant it, develops differently into different looking phenotypes Mobbing reed warblers (genetic predisposition to learn to mob cuckoos) if watch parrot, dont mob either species. Rat maternal care affects stress responses and can be transmitted non genetically across generations. Epigenetic inheritance cross fostering experimentsin enriched, high licking. Allows mother to program pups for whatever envt they are being born into (adaptive programming hypothesis) Behaviour / envt has affected genetics lactose tolerance Smaller p-value = less likely pattern occurred by chance. Type 1 error reject Ho incorrectly; type 2 accept Ho incorrectly Testing Predictions: Experimental: smaller groups show increased vigilance and decreased risky foraging by comparing groups with prairie dogs removed, not removed, and removed but replaced. Observational: test by comparing nat. occurring groups of diff sizes Comparative: need phylo info and test by comparing diff species or diff genetically isolated pops that had diff average group sizes Fundamental assumption of behave ecol indivs expected to be designed by nat. selection to behave in ways which best promote their genetic contribution to future gens through own rep or helping relatives to rep. Gould spandrels cant assume every trait is an adaptation Adaptive storytelling just so stories explanation without reasoning Tradeoffs: Drosophila early egg drop off die earlier Opportunity costs (doing one thing reduces opp for something else), energy costs, survival costs (risk of mortality from predators, parasites etc) Net benefits: nat selection should favour trait that maxs net bens. Constraints: if trait not well adapted eyes worked a little bit so must work with what it has; gene flow, time etc. Optimality Models: seek to predict which trade-off of costs and benefits will give the max net benefit to an indiv *economic analysis Clutch Size graph: max distance between costs and benefit curve = maximum rep success for clutch size. Costs = adult mortality and Benefits curve = number of surviving young produced. Y-axis costs of benefits; x-axis = clutch size Optimal group size? Above line better for bird to join group ~ 13 birds Max rate of food delivery for fixed travel time is at tangent with longer trips (increased travel time), extends further along on curve and therefore increased loads per trip to max the delivery rate FORAGING Benefits acquisition of energy and nutrients (can come from same food or diff nutrients from diff foods) Costs requires energy for movement, time, higher risks from predation and defensive actions by prey/physical envt Measures NREG (net rate of energy gain) diff between total intake and expenditure of energy to achieve that intake. Maxing NREG will min time to reach that amount and free up max amount of time for other activities. NREG not appropriate for a nutrient not well correlated with energy (more correlated with fitness such as aphid obtains much more energy than they need from sap of plants they suck but protein is important limiting resource) Central place foraging animal moves out from one location to one or more distant locations to forage and returns with food to fixed location (hoarders chipmunks and honeybees) or to return to safe place for handling or for offspring (birds) travel storing loads Food processing birds puncturing on sharp trees Simple Foraging Cycle Search: detection of potential prey o Avoid encounters: Avoid high predator activity times/places, use locations that exclude predators, associate with protector species, reduce evidence of presence in that area, space out, actively discourage predator from hunting in vicinity (mobbing) o Avoid detection when encountered: reduce motion, smell, sounds etc, hide in cover, restrict activity to times of day when detection difficult (night), crypsis (bkgd matching involves behavior and morphology), mimicry of inedible objects, vigilance Pursuit: leads to physical contact with prey that have been detected/selected o Advertise dangerous qualities, mimicry of dangerous species, indicate detection or display escape capacity (stotting), grouping amplifies warning signal, reduces per capita risk
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